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   2016| June  | Volume 8 | Issue 6  
    Online since June 30, 2016

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Perspective of postpartum depression theories: A narrative literature review
Fatemeh Abdollahi, Munn-Sann Lye, Mehran Zarghami
June 2016, 8(6):232-236
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.185027  PMID:27500126
Postpartum depression is the most prevalent emotional problem during a women's lifespan. Untreated postpartum depression may lead to several consequences such as child, infant, fetal, and maternal effects. The main purpose of this article is to briefly describe different theoretical perspectives of postpartum depression. A literature search was conducted in Psych Info, PubMed, and Science Direct between 1950 and 2015. Additional articles and book chapters were referenced from these sources. Different theories were suggested for developing postpartum depression. Three theories, namely, biological, psychosocial, and evolutionary were discussed. One theory or combinations of psychosocial, biological, and evolutionary theories were considered for postpartum depression. The most important factor that makes clinicians' choice of intervention is their theoretical perspectives. Healthcare providers and physicians should help women to make informed choices regarding their treatment based on related theories.
  8,712 1,487 9
Comparative study of efficacy and safety of topical squaric acid dibutylester and diphenylcyclopropenone for the treatment of alopecia areata
Anup K Tiwary, Dharmendra K Mishra, SS Chaudhary
June 2016, 8(6):237-242
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.185029  PMID:27500127
Background: Topical squaric acid dibutylester and diphenylcyclopropenone are still the most effective therapy for alopecia areata among widely available treatment options. Hence, it is important to know which one is more effective and safer between the two. Aims: The aim of this study was to compare topical squaric acid dibutylester and diphenylcyclopropenone for the treatment of alopecia areata in terms of their efficacy and side effects. Subjects and Methods: In the time period of January-March 2015, a total of 40 patients were selected for this study from the outpatient department of Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi. After dropout of 16 patients, the remaining 24 patients were randomly divided into two groups; that is, group A for squaric acid dibutylester and group B for diphenylcyclopropenone. Each group received treatment for 6 months between March-November 2015. Their efficacy and side effects were compared. Statistical Test: Unpaired student t-test was performed. P < 0.05 was considered to be significant and 95% confidence interval was also used to evaluate the efficacy. Results: The mean values of percentage change in baseline severity of alopecia tool score for squaric acid dibutylester and diphenylcyclopropenone were 52.25 and 34.45, respectively. At 6 months, 95% confidence interval was 43.5-61% for group A and 25-44% for group B. In 58.33% of group A patients, A3 (50-74%) grade of improvement was observed, whereas in group B patients, it was 33.33%. A4 grade of improvement (75-99%) was also seen in 1 patient of group A. Minor side effects were seen in 2 patients of group A and 10 patients of group B. None of the group A patients showed major side effects, however, 2 patients suffered major side effects in group B. Conclusions: Between squaric acid dibutylester and diphenylcyclopropenone, squaric acid dibutylester is more efficacious. Further, frequencies of major and minor side effects are also lower than diphenylcyclopropenone.
  7,056 607 6
Cardiovascular responses to an isometric handgrip exercise in females with prehypertension
Vernon Bond, Bryan H Curry, Richard G Adams, Thomas Obisesan, Sudhakar Pemminati, Vasavi R Gorantla, Kishan Kadur, Richard M Millis
June 2016, 8(6):243-249
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.185032  PMID:27500128
Background: Hypertensive individuals are known to exhibit greater increases in blood pressure during an isometric handgrip exercise (IHE) than their normotensive counterparts. Aim: This study tests the hypothesis that, compared to normotensive individuals, prehypertensive individuals exhibit an exaggerated response to IHE. Materials and Methods: In this study, the effects of IHE were compared in matched prehypertensive vs. normotensive healthy African-American females. Six healthy young adult African-American female university students were screened in a physician's office for blood pressure in the range of prehypertension, systolic blood pressure (SBP) 120-139 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 80-89 mmHg. Six young adult African-American women were also recruited to serve as a healthy normotensive control group with SBP ≤119 mmHg and DBP ≤79 mmHg. Cardiovascular fitness was determined by peak oxygen uptake (VO 2 peak) measured during a progressive exercise test. Results: During the handgrip exercise, the prehypertensive group exhibited greater increases in SBP (from 139 ± 6 to 205 ± 11 mmHg, +48%) than the controls (from 132 ± 3 to 145 ± 3 mmHg, +10%); intergroup difference P < 0.001. The prehypertensive group also exhibited greater increases in DBP (from 77 ± 2 to 112 ± 5 mmHg, +46%) compared to the controls (from 72 ± 3 to 78 ± 4 mmHg, +8%); intergroup difference P < 0.001. The increase in systemic vascular resistance was also greater in the prehypertensive group (from 1713 ± 91 to 2807 ± 370 dyne.s.cm -5 , +64%) than in the controls (from 1668 ± 80 to 1812 ± 169 dyne.s.cm -5 , +9%); intergroup difference P < 0.05. Conclusion: These results suggest that blood pressure measurements performed during IHE may be a useful screening tool in evaluating prehypertensive individuals for antihypertensive treatments.
  5,384 630 7
Acute rhabdomyolysis following synthetic cannabinoid ingestion
Demilade A Adedinsewo, Oluwaseun Odewole, Taylor Todd
June 2016, 8(6):256-258
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.185038  PMID:27500131
Context: Novel psychoactive substances, including synthetic cannabinoids, are becoming increasingly popular, with more patients being seen in the emergency room following acute ingestion. These substances have been associated with a wide range of adverse effects. However, identification of complications, clinical toxicity, and management remain challenging. Case Report: We present the case of a young African-American male who developed severe agitation and bizarre behavior following acute K2 ingestion. Laboratory studies revealed markedly elevated serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) with normal renal function. The patient was managed with aggressive intravenous (IV) fluid hydration and treatment of underlying psychiatric illness. Conclusion: We recommend the routine evaluation of renal function and CPK levels with early initiation of IV hydration among patients who present to the emergency department following acute ingestion of synthetic cannabinoids to identify potential complications early as well as institute early supportive therapy.
  4,048 371 9
Effect of statins on the mortality of bacteremic patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials
Pragya Shrestha, Dilli R Poudel, Ranjan Pathak, Sushil Ghimire, Rashmi Dhital, Madan R Aryal, Maryam Mahmood, Paras Karmacharya
June 2016, 8(6):250-251
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.185034  PMID:27500129
Background: Statins modify inflammatory cell signaling during the immune response to infection. This has been considered as a pleotropic effect. Effects of statins in inflammatory conditions such as bacteremia have been found to be controversial. Aims: We examined the effect of statins on the mortality of bacteremia patients. Material and Methods: Major databases were searched for the pertinent clinical trials. Results: Six cohort studies comprising 7553 patients were included. Hospital mortality was lower (15.36% vs 22.28%) in patients on statin. Conclusions: There may be a potential role of statins in similar inflammatory and infective conditions.
  3,383 321 5
Acute bowel obstruction in a giant recurrent right Bochdalek's hernia: A report of complication on both sides of the diaphragm
Hasan S Massloom
June 2016, 8(6):252-255
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.185036  PMID:27500130
Context: Diagnosis of congenital Bochdalek's hernia (BH) in adulthood is extremely rare and requires a fastidious surgical repair, the failure of which might result in a recurrence with severe complications. We report a rare case of a giant, right BH that recurred after surgical repair and was complicated with complete bowel obstruction. Case Report: A 51-year-old Saudi male, with past surgical history of laparotomy that failed to repair BH, presented to the emergency room with severe abdominal pain, vomiting, and hypovolemic shock. Computerized tomography (CT) showed an unusual picture of closed-loop bowel obstruction above and below the diaphragm. We carried out laparotomy and thoracotomy that achieved lysis of adhesions, reduction of bowel, and repair of diaphragmatic defect. Conclusion: Acute presentation of complicated BH poses a formidable challenge because of its rarity and complexity. The preferred approach for elective repair of adult BH is debatable, where surgeons-guided by hernia type and biased by their experience-recommend either laparotomy or thoracotomy. Nevertheless, a complicated, giant, recurrent BH typically requires both laparotomy and thoracotomy.
  3,194 259 4
Prosthetic aortic valve endocarditis with left main coronary artery embolism: A case report and review of the literature
Hafeez Ul Hassan Virk, Faisal Inayat, Salman Farooq, Ali Raza Ghani, Ghazi A Mirrani, Muhammed Waqas Athar
June 2016, 8(6):259-262
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.185040  PMID:27500132
Context: Coronary embolization is potentially a fatal sequela of endocarditis. Although the primary cause of acute coronary syndrome is atherosclerotic disease, it is imperative to consider septic embolism as an etiological factor. Case Report: Herein, we report a case of ventricular fibrillation and ST-segment depression myocardial infarction occurring in a patient who initially presented with fever and increased urinary frequency. Coronary angiography revealed new 99% occlusion of the left main coronary artery (LMCA). Transesophageal echocardiography showed bioprosthetic aortic valve with an abscess and vegetation. Histologic examination of the embolectomy specimen confirmed the presence of thrombus and Enterococcus faecalis bacteria. Subsequently, the patient was discharged to the skilled nursing facility in a stable condition where he completed 6 weeks of intravenous ampicillin. Conclusion: We present a rare case of LMCA embolism due to prosthetic valve endocarditis. The present report also highlights the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges associated with such patients.
  2,820 240 2