Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Reader Login
Visit old site
Home Print this page Email this page Small font size Default font size Increase font size
Users Online: 175
Export selected to
Reference Manager
Medlars Format
RefWorks Format
BibTex Format
  Access statistics : Table of Contents
   2016| May  | Volume 8 | Issue 5  
    Online since May 26, 2016

  Archives   Previous Issue   Next Issue   Most popular articles   Most cited articles
Hide all abstracts  Show selected abstracts  Export selected to
  Viewed PDF Cited
Ultrasound-guided central line insertion and standard peripherally inserted catheter placement in preterm infants: Comparing results from prospective study in a single-center
Dany Antanios Al Hamod, Smart Zeidan, Ayah Al Bizri, Georges Baaklini, Yolla Nassif
May 2016, 8(5):205-209
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.183011  PMID:27298814
Background: Among preterm infants, the peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) is the standard line for central venous access; however, its placement exposes them to hypothermia and pain. Ultrasound (US)-guided central line insertion may be less morbid than standard PICC line. Aims: To determine the ease, success rate, and morbidity associated with US-guided central line insertion in the internal jugular vein (IJV) by comparing it to the standard PICC line placement. Materials and Methods: This is a single-center nonrandomized prospective study evaluating preterm infants between October 2013 and June 2014. Patients were allocated into two groups: The standard group (control group) who underwent blind PICC line insertion and the intervention group who underwent a percutaneous US-guided central line insertion in the IJV. The epicutaneo-cava-catheter was used in both groups. Results: Fifty neonates were enrolled on study. A statistically difference in favor of US-IJV insertion was noted concerning the rate of successful first attempt (P < 0.001), insertion (P = 0.001), and procedure duration (P < 0.001) and number of trials (P < 0.001) compared to PICC. No difference in complications (P = 1.000) was noted. Conclusion: US guided catheterization of the IJV technique is faster than PICC line insertion with higher rates of successful first attempt and insertion, less procedure duration and fewer number of trials compared to PICC line insertion. There were no differences in complications.
  5,530 779 13
Primary adrenal insufficiency misdiagnosed as hypothyroidism in a patient with polyglandular syndrome
Sikarin Upala, Wai Chung Yong, Anawin Sanguankeo
May 2016, 8(5):226-228
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.183014  PMID:27298818
Context: Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome is a rare condition that causes a variety of clinical symptoms due to autoimmune processes involving multiple endocrine organs. Its vague presentation can cause missed or delayed treatment for adrenal insufficiency, resulting in a life-threatening adrenal crisis. Case Report: A 21-yr-old man presented with lethargy, hypotension, hyponatremia, hypoglycemia, and an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level. He was binge drinking the day before presentation. No significant response to initial treatment with levothyroxine and dextrose occurred. Diagnostic workup later revealed primary adrenal insufficiency. All initial symptoms completely resolved following treatment with hydrocortisone, fludrocortisone, and levothyroxine. Conclusion: Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome causes dysfunction of multiple endocrine organs such as the thyroid gland, adrenal gland, and pancreas. Initial diagnosis of APS is crucial and difficult because of its vague, acute presentation, which often involves hypothyroidism and adrenal insufficiency. Delayed treatment of adrenal insufficiency can result in a life-threatening adrenal crisis. A diagnostic workup for adrenal insufficiency should be performed in patients who do not respond to hypothyroidism treatment.
  5,117 634 3
Histopathology and histomorphometric investigation of bisphenol a and nonylphenol on the male rat reproductive system
Sohrab Kazemi, Farideh Feizi, Fahimaeh Aghapour, Gholam Ali Joorsaraee, Ali Akbar Moghadamnia
May 2016, 8(5):215-221
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.183012  PMID:27298816
Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol (NP) have harmful effects on the endocrine system of humans and animals. Aim: We sought to investigate the effect of three doses of BPA and NP on the reproductive parameters of rats. Materials and Methods: Adult Wistar male rats weighing 150–200 g were used for a consecutive 35-day study. BPA and NP were given as gavage in three doses (5, 25, and 125 μg/kg). At the end of the study, the rats were anesthetized and 2 ml blood sample was obtained from the auxiliary venous plexus for the assessment of sex hormone levels. The testes were removed and kept in 10% formalin for the histomorphometric and histopathologic analyses. Results: BPA and NP significantly decreased the body weight of the animals compared to the controls (P < 0.05). The seminiferous tubule diameter and thickness of the seminiferous epithelium were significantly decreased in the groups receiving BPA and NP compared to the control (P < 0.05). The number of seminiferous tubules in every experimental group increased, except for the highest dose of NP (125 μg/kg), which showed a significant difference compared to the controls (P < 0.05). The number of spermatocytes and spermatogonia (54.97 ± 5.824, 35.78 ± 3.956, respectively) in the group receiving NP (125 μg/kg) was significantly decreased compared to the other groups. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone, Follicle stimulating hormone, and testosterone did not show any significant change compared to the controls. Conclusion: Based on the results, all three doses of BPA and NP significantly produced weight loss, as well as destruction of the testis tissue and impairment of the spermatogenesis.
  4,776 599 35
Coexistence of her2, ki67, and p53 in osteosarcoma: A strong prognostic factor
Keykhosro Mardanpour, Mahtab Rahbar, Sourena Mardanpour
May 2016, 8(5):210-214
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.183013  PMID:27298815
Background: Many laboratories are currently evaluating the usefulness of the determination of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), p53, and Ki67 proliferation indices using immunohistochemical techniques in cancer. Although the available studies suggest that these factors might indeed be helpful in making treatment decisions in osteosarcoma patients, their clinical usefulness is still controversial. Aims: We proposed to introduce the value of the coexistence of HER2 overexpression, p53 protein accumulation, and Ki67 in osteosarcoma, which could be a prognostic factor in osteosarcoma. Material and Methods: Expression of HER2, p53, and Ki67 was examined by immunohistochemistry in samples of resected bone tumor tissue from 56 patients with osteosarcoma, obtained between 2009 and 2014 (median follow-up period of 48 months), and their significance for prognosis was analyzed. Results: Of the 56 osteogenic sarcoma tissue samples, 80, 89, and 96.5% were positive for HER2 overexpression, p53 protein accumulation, and Ki67 expression, respectively. Overexpression of HER2 and accumulation of p53 protein significantly correlated with reduced disease-free (P < 0.01) and overall survival (P < 0.003). HER2 and Ki67 co-overexpression significantly correlated with decreased disease-free (P < 0.03) and overall survival (P < 0.02). HER2, accumulation of p53 protein, and Ki67 co-overexpression significantly correlated with reduced disease-free (P < 0.01) and overall survival (P < 0.005) as did patients with larger tumor size, high grade of tumor, positive lymph node, and metastasis status within the specified period of follow up. Conclusions: We found evidence that coexistence of HER2 and Ki67 overexpression and p53 protein accumulation predict the development of lymph node involvement and metastases in patients with high-grade osteosarcoma and were significantly associated with reduced survival.
  4,344 548 21
Cutaneous metastasis as a first presentation for lung adenocarcinoma
Yazan Abdeen, Sawsan Amireh, Alpa Patel, Moh'd Al-Halawani, Hamid Shaaban, Richard Miller
May 2016, 8(5):222-225
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.183010  PMID:27298817
Context: According to the recent World Health Organization reports, lung cancer has become the most common type of malignancy and the leading cause of death from cancer. Lung cancer frequently metastasizes to hilar lymphnodes, brain, adrenal glands, bone, but rarely to skin. Case Report: We report a case of a 72-year-old male with a past medical history of pulmonary fibrosis and no prior history of smoking who presented to the emergency room for progressive dyspnea over three weeks. The patient reported having a rapidly growing scalp lesion as well. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest showed diffuse fibrotic changes and multiple densities of different diameters; a CT guided biopsy of lung revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Excision of right scalp lesion was performed, and pathology revealed poorly differentiated malignant neoplasm favoring adenocarcinoma. Conclusion: We are presenting a rare case of lung adenocarcinoma presenting with skin metastasis, which was simultaneously diagnosed during the same hospitalization. Although cutaneous metastasis from the lung is rare, it must be ruled out in patients with suspicious skin lesions, smoking history, or lung cancer.
  3,734 527 1
A novel way of treating multidrug-resistant enterococci
Hem Desai, Ryan Wong, Khurshid Pasha Ahmed
May 2016, 8(5):229-231
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.183015  PMID:27298819
Context: Daptomycin is the only antibiotic available with in vitro bactericidal activity against vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Its increased use has resulted in cases of decreased daptomycin efficacy. Recent in vitro studies have shown effective use of beta (β)-lactam and daptomycin antibiotics, as a combination therapy, in the treatment of VRE. We describe a case of effective treatment in a patient with VRE infection using dual ampicillin and daptomycin therapy that shows bench-to-bedside application of the abovementioned finding. Case Report: A 76-year-old gentleman with a history of bilateral arthroplasty was admitted with a swollen left knee. Blood cultures were positive for Enterococcus faecium. Left knee joint aspiration showed leukocytosis and alpha defensins. Extensive imaging did not show any other source of infection. Culture sensitivity results showed multidrug-resistant enterococci sensitive to daptomycin. The patient was started on intravenous (IV) daptomycin. His left knee prosthesis was explanted and a spacer was placed. The patient continued to be bacteremic for 10 days after removing the knee prosthesis. The patient was trialed on combination IV ampicillin and daptomycin. His blood culture turned negative 2 days later. The patient was discharged home to continue 6 weeks of IV ampicillin and daptomycin. Conclusion: The exact mechanism of the daptomycin/ampicillin synergy effect is unclear. Current hypothesis suggests that ampicillin causes a reduction in the net positive charge of the bacterial surface, possibly by releasing lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from the cell wall. This process increases the ability of the cationic daptomycin/calcium complex to bind to the cell wall more effectively. Our case shows the clinical application of the same. A prospective randomized control trial to explore the effectiveness of dual antibiotic therapy in vivo is needed. If proven, daptomycin/β-lactam can become a standard of care to treat VRE and decrease daptomycin nonsusceptibility.
  3,666 460 10