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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2015| January  | Volume 7 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 27, 2015

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Dental anxiety among adults: An epidemiological study in South India
Devapriya Appukuttan, Sangeetha Subramanian, Anupama Tadepalli, Lokesh Kumar Damodaran
January 2015, 7(1):13-18
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.150082  PMID:25709973
Background: Dental anxiety is a major barrier for dental care utilization. Hence, identifying anxious individuals and their appropriate management becomes crucial in clinical practice. Aim: The study aims to assess dental anxiety, factors influencing dental anxiety, and anxiety towards tooth extraction procedure among patients attending a dental hospital in India. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 1,148 consecutive patients aged 18-70 years. The assessment tools consisted of a consent form, history form, a questionnaire form containing the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) which was used to assess the level of dental anxiety, and an additional question on anxiety towards dental extraction procedure. Results: Among the study group, 63.7% were men and 36.3% were women. Based on the MDAS score, 45.2% of the participants were identified to be less anxious, 51.8% were moderately or extremely anxious, and 3% were suffering from dental phobia. Mean MDAS total score was 10.4 (standard deviation (SD) = 3.91). Female participants and younger subjects were more anxious (P < 0.001). Subjects who were anxious had postponed their dental visit (P < 0.001). Participants who had negative dental experience were more anxious (P < 0.05). Notably, 82.6% reported anxiety towards extraction procedure. Significant association was seen between anxiety towards extraction procedure and the respondents gender (P < 0.05), age (P < 0.001), education level (P < 0.05), employment status (P < 0.001), income (P < 0.001), self-perceived oral health status (P < 0.05), and their history of visit to dentist (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Significant percentage of population was suffering from dental anxiety in this study population. A plethora of factors like age, gender, education level, occupation, financial stability, and previous bad dental experience influences dental anxiety to various levels. Extraction followed by drilling of tooth and receiving local anesthetic injection provoked more anxiety.
  28 5,066 848
Use of oral anti-diabetic agents in pregnancy: A pragmatic approach
Bharti Kalra, Yashdeep Gupta, Rajiv Singla, Sanjay Kalra
January 2015, 7(1):6-12
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.150081  PMID:25709972
Insulin is the gold standard for treatment of hyperglycemia during pregnancy, when lifestyle measures do not maintain glycemic control during pregnancy. However, recent studies have suggested that certain oral hypoglycemic agents (metformin and glyburide) may be safe and be acceptable alternatives. There are no serious safety concerns with metformin, despite it crossing the placenta. Neonatal outcomes are also comparable, with benefit of reductions in neonatal hypoglycemia, maternal hypoglycemia and weight gain, and improved treatment satisfaction. Glibenclamide is more effective in lowering blood glucose in women with gestational diabetes, and with a lower treatment failure rate than metformin. Although generally well-tolerated, some studies have reported higher rates of pre-eclampsia, neonatal jaundice, longer stay in the neonatal care unit, macrosomia, and neonatal hypoglycaemia. There is also paucity of long-term follow-up data on children exposed to oral agents in utero. This review aims to provide an evidence-based approach, concordant with basic and clinical pharmacological knowledge, which will help medical practitioners use oral anti-diabetic agents in a rational and pragmatic manner. Pubmed search was made using Medical Subject Headings (MESH) terms "Diabetes" and "Pregnancy" and "Glyburide"; "Diabetes" and "Pregnancy" and "Metformin". Limits were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analysis. The expert reviews on the topic were also used for discussion. Additional information (studies/review) pertaining to discussion under sub-headings like safety during breastfeeding; placental transport; long-term safety data were searched (pubmed/cross-references/expert reviews).
  26 8,134 1,857
Chronic plantar fasciitis is mediated by local hemodynamics: Implications for emerging therapies
Larry E Miller, Daniel L Latt
January 2015, 7(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.150080  PMID:25709971
Plantar fasciitis (PF) is a common, disabling condition affecting millions of patients each year. With early diagnosis and timely application of traditional nonsurgical treatments, symptoms generally resolve over time. However, despite adequate treatment, 20% of patients will experience persistent symptoms. In these patients, minimally invasive therapies that augment local hemodynamics to initiate a regenerative tissue-healing cascade have the greatest potential to resolve long-standing symptoms. We performed a narrative review based on a best evidence evaluation of manuscripts published in Medline-indexed journals to determine the mechanisms involved in soft tissue injury and healing. This evaluation also highlights emerging minimally invasive therapies that exploit these mechanisms in recalcitrant PF.
  9 5,230 757
Dentinogenic ghost cell tumor - A neoplastic variety of calcifying odontogenic cyst: Case presentation and review
Shalu Rai, Mukul Prabhat, Sumit Goel, Kanika Bhalla, Sapna Panjwani, Deepankar Misra, Ankur Agarwal, Gunjan Bhatnagar
January 2015, 7(1):19-23
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.150084  PMID:25709974
Context: The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC), also referred to as calcifying ghost cell odontogenic cyst (CGCOC) is a heterogeneous lesion existing either as cystic or solid variant. Due to the fact that all CGCOC lesions are not cystic, and the biological behavior is often not consistent with a cyst, there has always been a controversy as to whether COC is a cyst or a tumor. The dentinogenic ghost-cell tumor (DGCT), a solid variant of the COC, is an uncommon odontogenic neoplasm occurring predominantly in later life. Case report is followed by a concise review and disambiguation of controversial terminologies regarding nomenclature of COC. Case Report: We report a case of 33-year-old female patient who presented with an insidious, steadily increasing swelling on the left side of her face since 8 months. Patient reported slight difficulty in eating because of reduced intraoral space and an obvious concern with facial disfigurement. There was no contributory dental or medical history. Intraorally, a hard, well defined, bicortical swelling was noted in left maxillary region with slight mobility of the associated teeth and normal appearing overlying mucosa. A provisional diagnosis of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor was made, and orthopantomogram, paranasal sinus radiograph and computed tomograpy scan of the face were acquired. A radiographic diagnosis of COC was made, which was subsequently confirmed on histopathology postenucleation of the tumor mass. COC has been seen to be of extensive diversity in its clinical and histopathological features as well as in its biological behavior. Conclusion: The present case of 33-year-old female was diagnosed as DGCT, a tumorous form of COC, due to its characteristic histological features; numerous ghost cells and dentinoid material.
  7 4,118 580
Cutaneous metastasis from squamous carcinoma of the base of tongue
Tashnin Rahman, Manigreeva Krishnatreya, Anupam Sarma, Mahesh Kumar, Amal C Kataki
January 2015, 7(1):24-26
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.150085  PMID:25709975
Context: Cutaneous metastasis from head and neck cancer is uncommon and it is seen from laryngeal cancer. Cutaneous metastasis from the base of tongue is relatively rare. Case Report: A 55-year-old male, who was a treated case of squamous carcinoma of the base of tongue presented with metastatic nodule on the skin of face and thigh. But, there was complete resolution of the tumor at the primary site. In the present case, clinically obvious cutaneous nodules with metastasis appeared soon after the completion of treatment with concurrent chemo-radiotherapy. The metastasis to the skin of face clinically appeared like an inflammatory lesion. Fine needle aspiration cytology confirmed the diagnosis of metastasis to skin at both the sites. Conclusion: Our case has highlighted that there could be associated occult skin metastasis at the time of diagnosis in squamous carcinoma of the base of tongue.
  1 2,308 216
An adolescent with tingling and numbness of hand: Gitelman syndrome
Atul Poudel
January 2015, 7(1):27-29
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.150086  PMID:25709976
Context: Gitelman syndrome is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder. It is usually diagnosed incidentally during adolescence or early adulthood based on clinical and biochemical findings. Case Report: We present a case of 16 years old adolescent female presenting with recurrent chest pain, tingling, and numbness of bilateral hands. Diagnosis was established by the typical biochemical abnormalities with hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypocalciuria, metabolic alkalosis, and hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism. Genetic diagnosis was confirmed by sequence analysis of the SLC12A3 gene showing the compound heterozygous mutation encoding the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride co-transporter. The patient was treated with oral potassium, magnesium, and amiloride with complete improvement of symptoms and biochemical profile. Conclusion: Gitelman syndrome should be considered as a differential diagnosis in work up of hypokalemia, especially in adolescent age group. The presence of hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesaemia, hypocalciuria, and mutation analysis provides the final diagnosis.
  1 2,836 384
Regional pericardits: A mischievous masquerader
Vinod K Chaubey, Lovely Chhabra, Nirmal J Kaur, David H Spodick
January 2015, 7(1):32-32
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.150093  PMID:25709978
  1 2,005 181
Regional pericarditis status post cardiac ablation: A case report
Joseph Orme, Moneer Eddin, Akil Loli
January 2015, 7(1):33-35
  - 1,826 149
Evolutionary paradox of immunity
Václav Vetvicka, Petr Šíma
January 2015, 7(1):30-31
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.150090  PMID:25709977
  - 1,911 196