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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2015| October  | Volume 7 | Issue 10  
    Online since October 30, 2015

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Deficiencies under plenty of sun: Vitamin D status among adults in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013
Marwa Tuffaha, Charbel El Bcheraoui, Farah Daoud, Hessah Abdulla Al Hussaini, Fahad Alamri, Mohammad Al Saeedi, Mohammed Basulaiman, Ziad A Memish, Mohammad A AlMazroa, Abdullah A Al Rabeeah, Ali H Mokdad
October 2015, 7(10):467-475
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.168675  PMID:26713293
Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been correlated with several diseases and injuries including diabetes, osteoporosis, fractures, and falls. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), current data on vitamin D status are lacking. Aims: To inform Saudi public health authorities on the current status of blood levels vitamin D deficiency, we analyzed data from the Saudi Health Interview Survey. Materials and Methods: The Saudi Health Interview Survey (SHIS) is a cross-sectional national multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years and above on sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, diet, physical activity, health care utilization, different health-related behaviors, and self-reported chronic conditions. A total of 10,735 participants completed a health questionnaire and were invited to the local health clinics for biomedical exams. Results: 62.65% of female Saudis and 40.6% of male Saudis aged 15 years and above are deficient in vitamin D. Out of them, less than 1% males and less than 2% females consume vitamin D supplements. Women who have never married and obese individuals are more likely to be deficient in vitamin D, compared to men who were currently married and nonobese individuals. Those consuming vitamin D supplements are less likely to be deficient in vitamin D. Conclusions: Our study showed a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Saudi men and women, and the results call for an increased awareness to ensure adequate levels of vitamin D for better health in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, our findings are certainly relevant for other countries in the Gulf region or countries with similar cultures, clothing, and religions.
  29 5,805 584
Eighth joint national committee (JNC-8) guidelines and the outpatient management of hypertension in the African-American population
Nicole Abel, Krysta Contino, Navjot Jain, Navjot Grewal, Elizabeth Grand, Iris Hagans, Krystal Hunter, Satyajeet Roy
October 2015, 7(10):438-445
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.168669  PMID:26713289
Background: Hypertension is a common medical disease, occurring in about one third of young adults and almost two thirds of individuals over the age of 60. With the release of the Eighth Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment (JNC-8) guidelines, there have been major changes in blood pressure management in the various subgroups. Aim: Optimal blood pressure management and markers of end-organ damage in African-American adult patients were compared between patients who were managed according to the JNC-8 hypertension management guidelines and those who were treated with other regimens. Materials and Methods: African-American patients aged 18 years or older with an established diagnosis of hypertension were included in the study who were followed up in our internal medicine clinic between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2103; the data on their systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings, heart rate, body mass index (BMI), age, gender, comorbidities, and medications were recorded. Patients were divided into four groups based on the antihypertensive therapy as follows - Group 1: Diuretic only; Group 2: Calcium channel blocker (CCB) only; Group 3: Diuretic and CCB; Group 4: Other antihypertensive agent. Their blood pressure control, comorbidities, and associated target organ damage were analyzed. Results: In all 323 patients, blood pressures were optimally controlled. The majority of the patients (79.6%) were treated with either a diuretic, a CCB, or both. Intergroup comparison analysis showed no statistically significant difference in the mean systolic blood pressure, mean diastolic blood pressure, associated comorbidities, or frequency of target organ damage. Conclusion: Although diuretics or CCBs are recommended as first-line agents in African-American patients, we found no significant difference in the optimal control of blood pressure and frequency of end-organ damage compared to management with other agents.
  27 9,804 1,956
Dyslipidemia in dermatological disorders
Chetana Shenoy, Manjunath Mala Shenoy, Gururaja K Rao
October 2015, 7(10):421-428
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.168657  PMID:26713286
Dyslipidemias are one of the common metabolic disorders. A link between dermatological disorders like psoriasis and dyslipidemia has been established in the recent past. Many dermatological disorders could have a systemic inflammatory component which explains such association. Chronic inflammatory dermatological disorders could also have other metabolic imbalances that may contribute to dyslipidemia. Presence of such abnormal metabolism may justify routine screening of these disorders for associated dyslipidemia and other metabolic abnormalities and early treatment of such comorbidities to improve quality of life. Some of the drugs used by dermatologists such as retinoids are also likely to be a cause of dyslipidemia. Hence, it is imperative that the dermatologists obtain scientific knowledge on the underlying mechanisms involved in dyslipidemia and understand when to intervene with therapies. A systematic review of the English language literature was done by using Google Scholar and PubMed. In this review, attempts are made to list the dermatological disorders associated with dyslipidemia; to simplify the understanding of underlying mechanisms; and to give a brief idea about the interventions.
  25 6,971 734
Prostate cancer for the internist
Shikha Jaiswal, Rehan Sarmad, Sumant Arora, Radhikha Dasaraju, Komal Sarmad
October 2015, 7(10):429-435
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.168660  PMID:26713287
In the United States, approximately 240,000 men are diagnosed annually with prostate cancer. Although effective treatment options are available for clinically localized cancer, the potential burdensome co-morbidities and attendant healthcare costs from over diagnosis and over treatment have escalated the discussion and controversy regarding appropriate screening, diagnosis, and optimal management of prostate cancer. Although the lifetime risk of developing prostate cancer is approximately 1 in 6 (~16%), the risk of dying from the disease is only ~2%. The discrepancy between the cancer incidence and lethality has led to widespread scrutiny of prostate cancer patient management, particularly for low-grade, low-stage (indolent) disease. The vast majority of men diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer are treated with interventional therapies despite studies demonstrating that even without treatment, prostate cancer-specific mortality is low. A MedLine/PubMed search was performed using PICO format (Patient, Intervention, Comparison and Outcome) identifying all relevant articles. No restrictions were used for publication dates. The terms "Prostate Cancer", "Screening", "Mortality", "Morbidity" yielded 307 results. "Diagnosis", "Prognosis" and "Survival" yielded 1504 results. Further filters were applied to narrow down the results using keywords "Prostate cancer screening guidelines 2014", "Beyond PSA", "NCCN Guidelines prostate", "MRI guided Prostate biopsy" yielding 72, 274, 54 and 568 results respectively. Of these, approximately 137 articles were found relevant and were reviewed. References from the reviewed articles were included in the final article.
  13 4,331 444
Septic arthritis in the temporomandibular joint
Hassan Mahdi Al-Khalisy, Ivan Nikiforov, Qurat Mansoora, John Goldman, Pramil Cheriyath
October 2015, 7(10):480-482
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.168678  PMID:26713295
Septic arthritis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a rare event that has only been reported a few dozen times worldwide. This case is remarkable for septic arthritis of the TMJ joint in an otherwise healthy male. Case Report: A 24-year-old male presented to the emergency department with periauricular swelling, erythema, fever, myalgia's and generalized joint pain. He had previously sought medical attention and was placed on ciprofloxacin. However, he developed facial swelling and a rash and had to discontinue the antibiotic. On physical exam the patient had a large swelling and tenderness in his left periauricular area, with erythema and deviation of the right mandible which limited his ability to open the mouth. A computed tomography showed mild asymmetric soft tissue swelling in the left pharyngeal region but did not show joint effusion. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging did show effusion of the joint space. The effusion was drained, and the synovial fluid was submitted for gram stain, culture, and sensitivity. The cultures grew menthicillin sensitive Staphyloccocus Aureus. The patient was discharged to complete a two week course of intravenous (IV) Ceftriaxone and IV Vancomycin via home infusion. Conclusion: Septic Arthritis of the TMJ is a rare event with very specific clinical symptoms. Due to the low sensitivity of the computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging should be considered when computed tomography scan is negative for TMJ effusion.
  10 3,649 343
The psychological attitude of patients toward health practitioners in Lebanon
Fouad Ayoub, Youssef Fares, Jawad Fares
October 2015, 7(10):452-458
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.168663  PMID:26713291
Background: Patients often complain about their doctor's attitude toward them. They describe the interaction that they have with some doctors as quick, cold, discourteous, or hardhearted. Although this does not apply to all Lebanese doctors, it does apply to some. Aims: The purpose of this study was to (1) examine the general perception of satisfaction, trust, and openness that Lebanese patients hold toward the work, office, personal, and social characteristics of their doctors - physician or dentist; and (2) identify the aspects on which a Lebanese health practitioner should focus to improve his/her practice. Materials and Methods: A convenient sample of 450 individuals from an area housing nine hospitals and hundreds of private clinics in Greater Beirut were surveyed regarding the qualities of their health practitioners. They were asked to complete a nine-page, 85-item, anonymous, and voluntary questionnaire that dealt with the medical and dental practice in Lebanon. Participants were older than 18 years and mentally competent. None was physicians, dentists, or nurses. The questionnaire was open-ended and initially pretested and piloted among a random sample. Results: Four hundred-fifteen (92%) individuals responded. Participants were from different ages, genders, geographical areas, educational backgrounds, and professions. The doctor traits most preferred by the Lebanese public were found to be: Empathy (90%), professionalism (87%), miscellaneous traits (86%), and academics (81%). Conclusion: The results support the conventional wisdom that the idealized perception of a doctor as a care-giving, compassionate, knowledgeable, well-appearing, and healthy role model still holds true within the Lebanese community.
  8 4,237 320
Periprocedural nebivolol for the prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Natanong Thamcharoen, Charat Thongprayoon, Peter J Edmonds, Wisit Cheungpasitporn
October 2015, 7(10):446-451
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.168670  PMID:26713290
Background: Nebivolol provides a protective effect on contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI) in animal models. However, the reports on the efficacy of nebivolol for the prevention of CIAKI in human remain unclear. Aims: The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the effect of nebivolol for the prevention of CIAKI. Materials and Methods: Comprehensive literature searches were performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database from inception through February 2015. Studies that reported relative risks, odd ratios, or hazard ratios comparing the risk of CIAKI in patients who received nebivolol versus those who did not were included. Pooled risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method. Results: Four studies (2 randomized controlled trials and 2 cohort studies) with 543 patients were included in our analysis to assess the risk of CIAKI and the use of nebivolol. Patients in the nebivolol group had an overall lower incidence of CIAKI (14.4%) compared to the control group (18.4%). The pooled RR of CIAKI in patients receiving nebivolol was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.38-1.15, I2 = 0). When meta-analysis was limited only to randomized control trials (RCTs), the pooled RR of CIAKI in patients receiving nebivolol was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.35-1.79, I2 = 0%). Conclusions: Despite no statistical significance, there was a trend toward reduced CIAKI risk in patients receiving nebivolol. The findings of our meta-analysis suggest the need of a large RCT with very careful attention to the balance of benefits and harms.
  4 3,213 274
Prostate cancer claims for a personalized medicine
Massimo Lazzeri
October 2015, 7(10):436-437
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.168661  PMID:26713288
  2 2,593 339
Cytokeratin 8 in association with sdLDL and ELISA development
Mohmed Ashmaig
October 2015, 7(10):459-466
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.168673  PMID:26713292
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cytokeratins (CKs) which may also be expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are generally considered to be markers for the differentiation of epithelial cells. Small, dense, low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL) particles, also termed LDL-IV, independently predict risk of CVD. Aims: The aims of this study were to develop an analytical method, apart from ultracentrifugation capable of isolating sdLDL in order to study any associated proteins. Materials and Methods: Using modified gradient gel electrophoresis (GGE), de-identified sdLDL-enriched plasma was used to physically elute and isolate sdLDL particles. To validate the finding, additional plasma from 77 normal and 48 higher risk subjects were used to measure sdLDL particles and CK8. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting method were used to identify the characteristics of proteins associated with sdLDL. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was developed and validated for the measurement of CK8 in plasma. Results: The validation of the CK8 ELISA method showed good analytical performance. The isolated sdLDL particles were verified with nondenaturing GGE with the apolipoprotein B component confirmed by Western immunoblotting. Confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western immunoblotting, CK8 was associated with sdLDL. Two-tailed statistical analysis showed that CK8 and sdLDL particles were significantly higher in the high-risk CVD group compared to control group (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively). Conclusion: This study reports a novel association between CK8 and sdLDL in individuals with CVD who have a predominance of sdLDL.
  1 3,191 227
Diabetes insipidus: An unusual presentation of adenocarcinoma of the lung in a patient with no identifiable lung mass
Shuchi Gulati, Christoper Kiefer, Nagla Abdel Karim
October 2015, 7(10):476-479
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.168677  PMID:26713294
Context: Lung cancers are known to metastasize to unusual sites. Despite this knowledge often times the diagnosis of a primary lung cancer gets delayed especially when the patient presents without respiratory symptoms. Case Report: The patient discussed in our review is a 47-year-old female, smoker who had presented to several hospitals with months of headache, nausea and intermittent episodes of vomiting. She was noted to have hypernatremia due to diabetes insipidus and a pituitary lesion on her magnetic resonance images. The pituitary mass on biopsy was found to represent a metastatic focus from a primary lung adenocarcinoma. Conclusion: Clinicians should be aware of malignancies that are well known to metastasize to the posterior pituitary. Conversely, since not every patient presents with symptoms of metastasis, there is a need to recognize the clinical syndromes (e. g., diabetes insipidus-like symptoms or more subtle symptoms like cranial nerve palsies) associated with potential metastasis to the pituitary.
  - 3,116 246