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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2013| December  | Volume 5 | Issue 12  
    Online since December 18, 2013

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Clinicopathological prognostic implicators of oral squamous cell carcinoma: Need to understand and revise
Kiran B Jadhav, Nidhi Gupta
December 2013, 5(12):671-679
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.123239  PMID:24404549
In spite of the vast amount of research and the advances, oral squamous cell carcinoma implies quite significant mortality and morbidity rates. This has motivated the search of factors with prognostic relevance. A web based search was initiated for all published articles by using Medline/PubMed, Google Scholar with key words such as prognosis, survival rate, risk factors associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma, prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The search was restricted to articles published in English language with no restriction to date of publication. This review was focused on clinical, pathological and molecular factors associated with survival and prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Most articles had described one or two parameters related to prognosis. Considering the biological behavior and nature of cancer, all the parameters were interrelated and so could not predict the prognosis independently. Consideration of all the parameters was required to assess the prognosis. We hypothesize the use of combination of clinical and pathological indicators together to assess the prognosis. The care givers can assess the prognosis in a more better and definitive way by using prognosis assessment sheet.
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Registration of clinical trials: Is it really needed?
Ameer Aslam, Sameera Imanullah, Mohammad Asim, Ayman El-Menyar
December 2013, 5(12):713-715
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.123266  PMID:24404555
Background and Aims: Withholding findings of clinical trials for publication or presentation to the regulatory authorities is a major concern. We aimed to address the importance of clinical trial registration and whether it is needed or not. Discussion: For ethical conduct of clinical trial, registration is an important but debatable issue due to proprietary interest of the pharmaceutical industry. Over the years, investigating agencies uncovered several instances of misconduct during the clinical trial. The International committee of medical journal editors requires registration of trial methodology, but does not require registration of trial results; however, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Amendments does require researchers to register results. Conclusion: Prospective registration of clinical trial is mandatory for more transparent research and sustaining the validity of evidence based practice and availability of reliable data. Clinical trials registration has the potential to contribute substantially to improve clinical trial transparency and reducing publication bias and selective reporting.
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Prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and evaluation of cardiovascular risk using three risk equations in Nigerians living with human immunodeficiency virus
Ayodele Olugbenga Edward, Akinboro Adeolu Oladayo, Akinyemi Suliat Omolola, Adepeju Akinlawon Adetiloye, Popoola Adetoun Adedayo
December 2013, 5(12):680-688
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.123251  PMID:24404550
Background: Reports from middle- and high-income countries suggest that the improved health outcome from highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWHIV) is being mitigated by increase in deaths from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Aims: This study was to determine the prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and the 10-year cardiovascular risk using three risk equations in PLWHIV with no overt vascular disease. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 265 PLWHIV. We classified the subjects as having low, moderate or high cardiovascular risk using the Framingham, World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) and Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) equations. Results: The mean age of the cohort was 38.7 ΁ 8.7 years; 179 (67.5%) were females and 214 (80.8%) were on HAART. The prevalent traditional CVRFs in our cohort were low physical activity (66%), low HDL-C (49.1%), hypercholesterolaemia (33.6%), BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 (32.8%) and elevated LDL-C (28.3%). The prevalence of smoking was very low (1.9%). The prevalence of moderate to high 10-year coronary risk was 11.7, 12.8, and 12.8% according to the Framingham, WHO/ISH and SCORE risk equations, respectively. Conclusion: Most of our patients had low overall cardiovascular risk according to the three risk equations.
  18 9,451 554
Acquired unilateral vocal fold paralysis: Retrospective analysis of a single institutional experience
Nemer Al-Khtoum, Nabil Shawakfeh, Eyad Al-Safadi, Osama Al-Momani, Khalid Hamasha
December 2013, 5(12):699-702
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.123254  PMID:24404552
Background: Vocal cord paralysis continues to be an important issue in laryngology and is considered as a sign of underlying disease ; the etiologies of this problem are varied and changing. Aims: The study was to carry out a retrospective analysis of patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis diagnosed. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 53 patients diagnosed and treated for unilateral vocal fold paralysis were studied retrospectively. Data regarding age, sex, duration of symptoms, etiology, and side of paralysis were recorded. Results: Out of the 53 cases, 36 were females and 17 males with a ratio of 2.1:1. The age of the patients ranged from 17-75 years. In 18.9% the cause was idiopathic. Surgical trauma (iatrogenic) problems was the most encountered etiology (66%), others included malignancy (non laryngeal) (7.5%), central (3.8%), external neck trauma (1.9%) and radiation therapy 1.9%. Thyroid surgery was the most commonly reported neck surgery in 50.9%. Conclusions: Thyroidectomy continues to be the single most common surgical procedure responsible for unilateral vocal cord paralysis. For this reason, routine pre and postoperative laryngoscopy should be considered in all patients undergoing surgeries with a potential risk for recurrent nerve paralysis to reduce the postoperative morbidity.
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Intestinal protozoans in adults with diarrhea
Muktikesh Dash, Sanghamitra Padhi, Pritilata Panda, Banojini Parida
December 2013, 5(12):707-712
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.123261  PMID:24404554
Background: Diarrhea is one of the most common presenting complaints in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. Aims: The study was designed to determine the magnitude of opportunistic and nonopportunistic intestinal parasitic infections among diarrheal patients and association between CD4 + T-cell counts and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected intestinal parasites. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 207 enrolled diarrheal patients attending HIV integrated counseling and testing center from January 2012 to December 2012. Stool samples were subjected to special modified Ziehl-Neelsen and chromotrope staining method for detection of opportunistic protozoans. Blood samples were also collected from all study subjects for HIV testing and CD4 + T-cell counts were estimated by only in HIV-infected patients. Results: Intestinal parasitic pathogens were detected in 46.1% HIV-infected patients and the major pathogens were opportunistic protozoans 32.2% (37/115), most common being Isospora belli 16.5% (19/115) followed by Cryptosporidium parvum 12.2% (14/115). In HIV noninfected diarrheal patients, major pathogens detected were Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar 8.7% (8/92) and Ascaris lumbricoides 3.3% (3/92). Conclusions: The opportunistic intestinal protozoans especially I. belli and C. parvum were most commonly isolated in HIV-infected patients with diarrhea. Majority of the infections occurred in patients when a CD4 + T-cell counts were less than 200 cells/μl.
  8 2,779 410
Intestinal amebiasis: A concerning cause of acute gastroenteritis among hospitalized Lebanese children
Amal Naous, Ziad Naja, Nour Zaatari, Raymond Kamel, Mariam Rajab
December 2013, 5(12):689-698
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.123253  PMID:24404551
Background: Intestinal amebiasis is an important public health problem worldwide. More severe disease is associated with young age, malnutrition and immunosuppression. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and characteristic nature of intestinal amebiasis among pediatric population, and compare it with other causes of gastroenteritis. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective comparative study conducted at Makassed General Hospital between January 2008 and December 2012, including all pediatric patients between birth and 15 years of age, who presented with symptoms of acute gastroenteritis. Results: One thousand three hundred ninety-five patients were included in the study, and were divided into four groups: Group I (Entameba histolytica group = 311 cases, 22.3%), group II (Rotavirus group = 427 cases, 30.6%), group III (bacterial group = 107 cases, 7.7%), group IV (unidentified group = 550 cases, 39.4%). Significant leukocytosis, neutrophilia and positive C-reactive protein were found among more than 50% of admitted Entemaba histolytica cases with a picture of severe invasive disease in young infants. Conclusion: Entameba histolytica can be an emerging serious infection, especially when it finds suitable environmental conditions and host factors, so we should be ready to face it with effective preventive measures.
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Primary adrenal lymphoma with paraneoplastic syndrome
Radhika Dasararaju, Robert A Avery
December 2013, 5(12):721-723
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.123275  PMID:24404557
Context: The adrenal gland is a common site for neoplastic diseases and primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL) is a rare tumor with around 120 cases reported so far. Case Report: We present a rare case of 76-year-old male who presented with headache, confusion, inappropriate body movements and abdominal pain. Adrenal biopsy revealed PAL and he has had an excellent neurologic outcome to date with chemotherapy and involved field radiation. Conclusion: The majority of cases of PAL are B cell lymphomas with diffuse large cell in 70% of cases. Clinical symptoms are variable and patients may present with abdominal pain, fever, anorexia, weight loss, fatigue or symptoms of adrenal insufficiency. Therapeutic modalities for PAL include surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy and corticosteroid replacement. With this case report, we hope to raise awareness about this rare disease and to include lymphoma in the differential of adrenal masses.
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Accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in diagnosing solid pseudopapillary tumor
Shreyas Saligram, Fang Fan, Melissa Oropeza-Vail, Parviz Gholami, Mojtaba Olyaee
December 2013, 5(12):716-720
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.123270  PMID:24404556
Background: Solid pseudopapillary tumors are rare pancreatic tumors. Accurate preoperative diagnosis helps in planning of the surgery. Aim: This study was to evaluate accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration and immunohistochemistry in diagnosing solid pseudopapillary tumors. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was performed by reviewing medical records to identify patients treated for solid pseudopapillary tumors over a 5-year period. Patients who were noted to have pancreatic lesions by computer tomography abdomen underwent endoscopic ultrasound. Fine needle aspiration was obtained from each of these lesions and subjected to immunohistochemistry. Results: Five patients were identified. Endoscopic ultrasound was able to identify the pancreatic lesions in all five patients noted in computer tomography abdomen. Solid pseudopapillary tumors were diagnosed by immunohistochemistry. All five patients underwent surgery and the resected lesions confirmed solid pseudopapillary tumors in 80% patients. Conclusion: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration has a higher degree of accuracy in diagnosing solid pseudopapillary tumors.
  1 2,082 348
Oxidative low density lipoprotien prohibited plasmodium falciparum clearance in type 2 diabetes mellitus via cluster differentiation 36
Hassan Hijazi, Hisham Waggiallah, Atif Alagib
December 2013, 5(12):703-706
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.123255  PMID:24404553
Background: Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) is reported to function as a receptor of erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum (PF) and as an oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of CD36 in PF parasitized red blood cells in high concentration of oxLDL of T2 diabetes mellitus patients. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among diabetic patients. A total of 45 samples were collected from diabetic patients with more than 8% of HbA1c and more than 170 mg/dL of oxLDL. Results: The mean difference between CD36 negative and positive controls was found to be statistically significant (P ≤ 0.001). The mean difference between CD36 positive control and CD36 in diabetic patients with oxLDL ≥ 170 mg/dL also was statistically significant. Conclusion: High concentration of oxidative low density of lipoprotein more than 170 mg/dL leads to block CD36 receptor on infected red blood. This process believed to contribute in parasite survival by avoiding phagocytic clearance in the spleen.
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