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   2013| November  | Volume 5 | Issue 11  
    Online since November 28, 2013

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Anaphylactic shock: Kounis hypersensitivity-associated syndrome seems to be the primary cause
Nicholas G Kounis, George D Soufras, George Hahalis
November 2013, 5(11):631-636
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.122304  PMID:24404540
Experiments have shown that anaphylaxis decreases cardiac output; increases left ventricular end diastolic pressure; induces severe early acute increase in respiratory resistance with pulmonary interstitial edema; and decreases splanchnic, cerebral, and myocardial blood flow more than what would be expected from severe arterial dilation and hypotension. This is attributed to the constrictive action of inflammatory mediators released during anaphylactic shock. Inflammatory mediators such as histamine, neutral proteases, arachidonic acid products, platelet-activating factor (PAF), and a variety of cytokines and chemokines constitute the pathophysiologic basis of Kounis hypersensitivity-associated acute coronary syndrome. Although the mechanisms of anaphylactic shock still remain to be elucidated, myocardial involvement due to vasospasm-induced coronary blood flow reduction manifesting as Kounis syndrome should be always considered. Searching current experimental and clinical literature on anaphylactic shock pathophysiology, causality, clinical appearance, and treatment via PubMed showed that differentiating global hypoperfusion from primary tissue suppression due to mast cell mediator constrictive action on systemic arterial vasculature is a challenging procedure. Combined tissue suppression from arterial involvement and peripheral vasodilatation, perhaps, occur simultaneously. In cases of anaphylactic shock treatment targeting the primary cause of anaphylaxis together with protection of coronary vasculature and subsequently the cardiac tissue seems to be of paramount importance.
  29,301 808 17
Clinical spectrum of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease: A 10 year experience in an urban area of south
Nitin Joseph, Deepak Madi, Ganesh S Kumar, Maria Nelliyanil, Vittal Saralaya, Sharada Rai
November 2013, 5(11):647-652
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.122307  PMID:24404543
Background: Rheumatic fever (RF) is an important problem concerning developing countries like India. Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is one of the most readily preventable chronic diseases. Aim: This study was done to find out the clinical profile, risk factors, compliance with treatment and outcome among RF/RHD cases so as to suggest better case management strategies. Materials and Methods: Clinical records of 51 RF and 71 RHD cases admitted in tertiary care hospitals in Mangalore between 2001 and 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Results: Mean age of RF cases were 17.4 ± 12.1 years and RHD cases were 33.2 ± 18.6 years. More than half of RF and RHD cases were males. Commonest risk factors among RF cases were poor socioeconomic status (60.4%), history of upper respiratory tract infection before disease onset (58.8%) and undernutrition (35.3%). Commonest clinical manifestation among RF cases was fever 39 (76.5%) followed by polyarthritis 34 (66.7%). Commonest valvular lesions among RHD cases was mitral stenosis with mitral regurgitation found in 42.9% cases. Compliance of patients with prophylactic antibiotics was found to be 37 (30.3%). Mortality rate was significantly more among RHD cases (P = 0.0399). Conclusions: Improvement of socioeconomic and nutritional factors is an important task required for primary prophylaxis and of compliance for secondary prophylaxis of RF.
  4,887 553 9
Prevalence and correlates of insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea in chronic kidney disease
Shahbaj Ahmad, Manan Gupta, Ravi Gupta, Mohan Dhyani
November 2013, 5(11):641-646
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.122306  PMID:24404542
Background: Poor sleep quality, insomnia, and restless legs syndrome (RLS) and sleep apnea are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Clinical correlates of these problems are poorly understood. Aims: This study was to find out the prevalence and correlates of insomnia and subjects with 'high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)' in adults with chronic kidney disease. Materials and Methods: One hundred and four adults with CKD were included. Their demographic data, details regarding kidney disease and hemodialysis (HD) were recorded. Presence of insomnia and its severity was assessed. They were screened for sleep apnea using a validated questionnaire. Results: Average age was 54.17 (΁ 12.96) years. 89.4% had stage 5 nephropathy and 78.8% subjects were on regular HD. Males outnumbered females. Insomnia was reported by 35.5%. Among these, 50% had chronic insomnia. Insomnia subjects had higher prevalence of diabetes (P = 0.01) and depression (P < 0.001). Fifty-one percent subjects were at "high risk for sleep apnea". They had higher prevalence of diabetes (P < 0.001), coronary disease (P = 0.02), insomnia (P = 0.008), and experienced daytime symptoms of insomnia (P < 0.001). However, in the logistic regression, only male gender (odds ratio, OR = 13.59) and daytime symptoms of insomnia (OR = 7.34) were found to be associated with "higher risk for sleep apnea". Conclusion: Insomnia was prevalent in CKD. Nearly half of these patients are at high risk for sleep apnea and a third of them suffer from insomnia. Hence, these patients should be screened for sleep disorders.
  3,811 772 21
Cardiovascular risk assessment in prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus study: International collaboration research overview
Ezekiel Uba Nwose, Ross Stuart Richards, Kester Digban, Philip Taderera Bwititi, Gretchen Ennis, Kwang Choon Yee, Victor Maduabuchi Oguoma, Selma Liberato
November 2013, 5(11):625-630
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.122303  PMID:24404539
The study aims to develop a screening protocol for the risk of future cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus in people with prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes; and to establish a framework for early identification and intervention of prediabetes including strategies for holistic management and monitoring of progression. The first phase is to identify prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes in volunteers who are ≥18-years-old for 5 years. Point-of-care testing and questionnaire will be used to screen for prediabetes and cardiovascular disease. We anticipate screening more than 2000 individuals of both genders by the end of first phase. The second and third phases which shall run for 5-10 years will be longitudinal study involving participants identified in the first phase as having prediabetes without dyslipidaemia, or clinically established cardiovascular disease. The second phase shall focus on preventive management of risk of progress to diabetes with explicit diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. Oxidative stress measurements will be performed cum evaluation of the use of antioxidants, exercise, and nutrition. The third phase will include probing the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Binomial logistic regression would be performed to generate and propose a model chart for the assessment of cardiovascular disease risk in prediabetes.
  3,578 618 6
Comparison of different phenotypic and genotypic methods for the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Abbas Farahani, Parviz Mohajeri, Babak Gholamine, Mansour Rezaei, Hassan Abbasi
November 2013, 5(11):637-640
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.122305  PMID:24404541
Background: Staphylococcus aureus is known as a powerful pathogen that causes various infections. Emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MSRA) is responsible for nosocomial and community-acquired infections worldwide. Aims: The present study aimed to evaluate the performance and ability of eight different phenotypic and genotypic methods for the detection of MSRA. Materials and Methods: A total of 186 S. aureus isolates were defined as methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA; 95) and MSRA (91) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as the gold standard. Susceptibility to methicillin was investigated using oxacillin, methicillin, cefotetan, cefoxitin, and cefmetazole disks, by oxacillin Adata Tab and strips. For all S. aureus isolates minimal inhibitory concentrations of oxacillin were determined using the broth microdilution method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results: Among the diagnostic methods studied, broth microdilution and the cefoxitin disk had the highest specificity (98.9 and 94.7%), sensitivity (100 and 98.9%), and concordance with PCR results (98.9 and 93.6%). The cefotetan and cefmetazole disks had the lowest concordance with PCR results. Conclusion: Our results suggest that microdilution and cefoxitin disk methods have high sensitivities compared with other methods for detection of MSRA. The cefoxitin disk method may be preferred in clinical laboratories because it is easy to perform and does not require special equipment.
  3,291 519 12
Brown bowel syndrome: A rare and often overlooked complication of intestinal atresia
Shailendra Kapoor
November 2013, 5(11):669-670
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.122315  PMID:24404548
  2,945 236 -
Gastrointestinal Kaposi's sarcoma presenting as ileocolic intussusception
Amara J Nidimusili, Naseem Eisa, Khaldoon Shaheen
November 2013, 5(11):666-668
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.122313  PMID:24404547
Context: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most common neoplasm in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Gastrointestinal (GI) involvement with KS commonly occurs in association with cutaneous lesions or lymph node involvement, with GI tract involvement alone occurring in only 3.5% of cases. There are several case reports described in the literature about asymptomatic intestinal KS with skin manifestations. Although GI KS is usually asymptomatic, hemorrhages from the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, and large bowel have been reported in this disease. Case Report: Our case is unique, in a way that the patient does not have skin manifestation, and also is that the first manifestation presented as acute intestinal intussusception and obstruction with nodular mass lesions of the stomach and GI tract due to GI KS. Conclusion: As a differential diagnosis of KS, nonHodgkin lymphomas frequently involve the gut in AIDS patients. Furthermore, tumors of the gut with spindle-shaped cells such as leiomyomas, rhabdomyosarcomas, high-grade pleomorphic sarcomas, or GI stromal tumors have to be considered in the differential diagnosis. Overall, the visceral involvement of the KS is usually associated with poor prognosis. Our case illustrates the importance of physicians to recognize GI KS as a differential diagnosis for HIV positive patients with recurrent abdominal pain. It is commonly occurs in association with cutaneous lesions or lymph node involvement and rarely presents with GI involvement alone, which is makes it a challenge to the physician.
  2,818 347 6
Prevalence of overweight and obesity in portuguese adolescents: Comparison of different anthropometric methods
Beatriz Minghelli, Carla Nunes, Raul Oliveira
November 2013, 5(11):653-659
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.122309  PMID:24404544
Background: The recommended anthropometric methods to assess the weight status include body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, and waist circumference. However, these methods have advantages and disadvantages regarding the classification of overweight and obesity in adolescents. Aims: The study was to analyze the correlation between the measurements of BMI, skinfold thickness and waist circumference to assess overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents. Materials and Methods: A sample of 966 students of Portugal was used. Of them, 437 (45.2%) were males and 529 (54.8%) were females aged between 10 and 16 years. The evaluations included BMI calculation, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference measurements. Results: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity with values ranging from 31.6%, 61.4%, and 41.1% according to the measurement of BMI, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference, respectively. The results found a high level of correlation between BMI and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.712), between BMI and waist circumference (P < 0.001, r = 0.884), and waist circumference and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.701). Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents using three different anthropometric methods, where the BMI showed the lowest values of prevalence of overweight and obesity and the skinfold thickness showed the highest values. The three anthropometric methods were highly correlated.
  2,688 365 5
Posttraumatic nonunion of the clavicle in a 13-year-old boy causing an arteriovenous fistula
Feiran Wu, Nicholas Marriage, Adil Ismaeel, Vince Smyth, Musa Kaleem, Tahir Khan
November 2013, 5(11):663-665
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.122312  PMID:24404546
Context: Fractures of the clavicle are one of the most common injuries to the bone in childhood, but posttraumatic nonunion of pediatric clavicle fractures are extremely rare, with only isolated reports in literature. Case Report: We report a case of a posttraumatic painful nonunion of a clavicle fracture in a 13-year-old boy that caused symptomatic compression of the external jugular vein (EJV) and the formation of an arteriovenous fistula. The fracture was treated successfully with open reduction and internal fixation with a contoured recon plate 6 months following the injury. The fistula was treated by ligation and closure. Conclusion: The patient made a full recovery 6 months following surgery and was asymptomatic with full range of shoulder movement. Fracture union was confirmed by computed tomography (CT) scanning and no residual fistula was found.
  2,437 317 8
Hyponatremia associated with unilateral hand weakness and numbness: A case report
Khaldoon Shaheen, Abdul Hamid Alraiyes, Motaz Baibars, Naseem Eisa, M Chadi Alraies
November 2013, 5(11):660-662
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.122310  PMID:24404545
Context: The key clinical features in this case are to make the diagnosis apical lung cancer (Pancoast tumor) in a patient with brachial plexopathy and to recognize the association between syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) as a paraneoplastic syndrome and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Case Report: We herein describe a rare case of NSCLC presented as pancoast tumor complicated by brachial plexopathy and associated with SIADH as a paraneoplastic phenomena. There were no renal insufficiency, congestive cardiac failure, liver insufficiency, volume depletion, diuretic use, hypoadrenalism, and hypothyroidism in our patient. Furthermore, the findings of serum hyponatraemia and hypo-osmolality associated with an inappropriate high urinary osmolality indicate that the SIADH was present in our patient due to the NSCLC. Conclusion: Our case also emphasizes that early recognition and appropriate applied management may significantly improve symptoms and prevent complications of hyponatremia which may enhance quality of life in patients with paraneoplastic SIADH.
  2,411 318 -