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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2012| April  | Volume 4 | Issue 4  
    Online since April 11, 2012

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Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of urinary pathogens in female outpatients
Iram Shaifali, Uma Gupta, Syed Esam Mahmood, Jawed Ahmed
April 2012, 4(4):163-169
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.94940  PMID:22536558
Background: Urinary tract Infection (UTI) is among the most common infections described in outpatient setting and hospital patients. In almost all cases empirical antimicrobial treatment initiates before the laboratory results of urine culture are available; thus antibiotic resistance may increase in uropathogens due to frequent use of antibiotics. Aims: The study was designed to find the prevalence of UTI in females with urinary tract symptoms, to determine the causative organism (s) of UTI, and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of microbial agents isolated from urine culture (antibiogram). Materials and Methods: The prospective, observational study involved 139 females, aged 15 years and above clinically suspected for UTI attending outpatient Departments of Vivekananda Polyclinic and Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow. A structured questionnaire was used to interview the study subjects. A chi-square test and Fisher Exact test were used to analyze data. Results: The overall prevalence of UTI was found to be 45.32% (63/139). Escherichia coli (33.1%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.9%) were the most common organisms isolated. The most effective antibiotic for both was Nitrofurantoin. Conclusions: Regular monitoring is required to establish reliable information about susceptibility pattern of urinary pathogens for optimal empirical therapy of patients with UTI.
  119 9,498 1,272
Evaluation of TNF-α and IL-6 levels in obese and non-obese diabetics: Pre- and postinsulin effects
Rajeev Goyal, Abul Faiz Faizy, Sheelu S Siddiqui, Monil Singhai
April 2012, 4(4):180-184
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.94944  PMID:22536561
Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) mellitus is a serious implication of obesity. The effect of insulin therapy on levels of inflammatory markers among obese and non-obese diabetics has been inadequately studied. Aim: The study aimed to analyze the preinsulin and postinsulin levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and IL-6 in nonobese and obese T2DM patients. Materials and Methods: We assessed TNF-α and IL-6 levels in healthy controls (n=10) and diabetic patients (obese and nonobese; n=20 each) and analyzed the postinsulin effect on TNF-α and IL-6 levels after 24 and 48 weeks. TNF-α and IL-6 levels were also correlated with fasting plasma glucose of obese and nonobese diabetic patients after insulin therapy. Results: There is augmentation of TNF-α and IL-6 levels in diabetic patients and augmentation is more in obese than in nonobese diabetics. The obese group showed a significant decrease (P value<0.05) after 24 weeks of insulin therapy and an extremely significant decrease ( P<0.001) in TNF-α and IL-6 levels after 48 weeks of therapy. The nonobese group showed an extremely significant decrease ( P<0.001) in TNF-α and IL-6levels after 24 and 48 weeks both. Conclusion: There is augmented inflammation in diabetes and it is more in obese diabetics. Insulin therapy tends to counter this inflammation, but the response is delayed in obese diabetics.
  83 8,310 946
Midgut malrotation with chronic abdominal pain
Anil K Wanjari, Arjun J Deshmukh, Parimal S Tayde, Yashwant Lonkar
April 2012, 4(4):196-198
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.94950  PMID:22536565
Abnormalities in midgut rotation occur during the physiological herniation of midgut between the 5 th and 10 th week of gestation. The most significant abnormality is narrow small bowel mesentery which is prone to volvulus. This occurs most frequently in the neonatal period, less commonly midgut malrotation presents in adulthood with either acute volvulus or chronic abdominal symptoms. It is the latter group that represents a diagnostic challenge. We report a case of a 17-year-old male patient who presented with 10-year history of nonspecific gastro-intestinal symptoms. After extensive investigation the patient was diagnosed with midgut malrotation following computed tomography of abdomen. The patient was treated with a laparoscopic Ladd's procedure and at 3 months he was gaining weight and had stopped vomiting. A laparoscopic Ladd's procedure is an acceptable alternative to the open technique in treating symptomatic malrotation in adults. Midgut malrotation is a rare congenital anomaly which may present as chronic abdominal pain. Abdominal CT is helpful for diagnosis.
  17 4,356 459
Ectopic pleomorphic adenoma
Prasanna Kumar Rao, Shishir Ram Shetty, Divya Hegde
April 2012, 4(4):190-192
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.94947  PMID:22536563
We describe a case of pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary glands occurring in the retromolar area. A 58-year-old male patient reported with complaint of a small mass in the left lower retromolar region of the mouth. It has grown slowly to the present size. Based on the history and clinical findings, differential diagnosis of fibroma, minor salivary gland tumor, and mucocele were considered. The microscopic findings revealed the presence of minor salivary gland tissue and the lesions showed the presence of myoepithelial and epithelial cell proliferation. The cells were arranged in ductal pattern. There were areas where the epithelial cells showed proliferation in sheets, cords, and strands. The patient was followed up for a period of 6 months and there was no evidence of recurrence. The retromolar area being affected as in the case presented is rare for this condition. Surgical excision along with surrounding normal tissue is the treatment of choice.
  5 4,373 437
Procathepsin D involvement in chemoresistance of cancer cells
Vaclav Vetvicka, Martin Fusek, Aruna Vashishta
April 2012, 4(4):174-179
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.94943  PMID:22536560
Background: The role of pCD in cancer has been studied for a long time. We have focused on the hypothesis that increased expression and/or secretion of pCD in cancer cells causes increased chemoresistance to apoptosis inducing molecules. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the effects of pCD expression/release on chemoresistance. Materials and Methods: We tested the LC 50 values for various transfectants of breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 as well as effects of exogenous additions of pCD, its mutants, pepstatine, antibodies, and Brefeldin on the resistance. Results: We found that pCD levels can be correlated with chemoresistance, the pro-resistant activity seems to be localized outside the cells, proteolytic activity is not involved, and PI3-Akt signaling has an important role in antiapoptotic effects of pCD. Conclusion: We can conclude that overexpression of pCD has strong influence on increased resistance of tumor cells. This could, in fact, be an important contribution in the possible use of pCD level determination for prognostic and/or therapeutic purposes.
  4 2,851 284
Recombinant factor VIIa in post-partum hemorrhage: A new weapon in obstetrician's armamentarium
Navneet Magon, KM Babu
April 2012, 4(4):157-162
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.94938  PMID:22536557
Post-partum hemorrhage (PPH) is a life-threatening obstetric complication and the leading cause of maternal death. The usual manner for its management includes, first, noninvasive and nonsurgical methods, and, then invasive and surgical methods. However, mortality and morbidity related to PPH still remains unacceptably high, contributing to hysterectomy in at least 50% of cases. Early, effective, and preferably noninvasive treatments that can reduce maternal mortality and morbidity due to this entity are therefore essential. One of the most spectacular advancements in the control of PPH has been the use of recombinant activated factor (rFVIIa), both as initial and a life- and uterus-saving therapy. rFVIIa also reduces costs of therapy and use of blood components in massive PPH. In cases of intractable bleeding with no other obvious indications for hysterectomy, administration of rFVIIa should be considered before surgery. A MEDLINE search was done to review relevant articles in English literature on use of rFVIIa in PPH. Data were constructed and issues were reviewed from there. Our experience in a series of three cases of PPH, two of atonic and one of traumatic, successfully managed using rFVIIa is also shared.
  3 4,289 854
Chondroblastoma of squamous part of the temporo-parietal region of skull vault: A case report and review of literature
S Sateesh Chavan, VV Yenni, MH Kulkarni
April 2012, 4(4):199-202
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.94952  PMID:22536566
Chondroblastoma of squamous part of temporal bone is a very rare bone tumor. Although most of them are benign, the prognosis is not predictable. A 14-year-old girl presented with recurrent slowly growing mass over the right side of the temporo-parietal region of skull vault. Initial curettage material showed extensive chondroid areas and diagnosed histologically as "enchondroma." Histology of completely excised recurrent mass showed identifiable chondroblastic foci. She was followed up for 3 years and was free from recurrence. Chondroblastomas at very rare sites such as squamous part of temporal bone have variable histology, confusing with other giant cell lesions, variable prognosis, and require prompt diagnosis and complete excision.
  2 3,188 334
Pattern of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors induced adverse drug reactions in South Indian teaching hospital
Uday Venkat Mateti, Haritha Nekkanti, Rajesh Vilakkathala, Thiyagu Rajakannan, Surulivelrajan Mallayasamy, Padmakumar Ramachandran
April 2012, 4(4):185-189
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.94945  PMID:22536562
Background: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) occur frequently with cardiovascular drugs leading to change in therapy, increasing morbidity, and mortality. Aim: The study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of ADRs due to angiotensin-converting enzyme Inhibitors in cardiology department. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was carried out for a period of 6 months. The data were assessed for the pattern of the ADRs with respect to patient demographics, nature of the reaction, outcome of the reactions, causality, severity, and preventability. Results: Among 692 patients, 51 (7.36%) had developed 60 ADRs, and majority of cases (56.66%) were in the age group of >61 years and most of them were developed in female (80%). The common ADRs observed were cough, hypotension, hyperkalemia, and acute renal failure. In 21.66% cases the dose of the suspected drug was altered and in 78.33% cases the drug was withdrawn. Considering the outcome, 93.33% of cases recovered from ADRs, whereas in 6.66% cases were continuing. Causality assessment showed that majority of ADRs was probable and were found to be moderately severe. Conclusion: Our study concludes geriatrics and female patients have higher incidence of ADRs. So early identification and management of ADRs are essential for this population.
  2 3,381 458
Scimitar syndrome with renal agenesis
Hasan Kahraman, Fuat Özkan, Bülent Altinoluk, Nurhan Koksal
April 2012, 4(4):193-195
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.94948  PMID:22536564
Partial pulmonary venous connection anomaly is relatively uncommon form of congenital heart diseases. The quite rare combination of this anomaly with hypoplasia of the right lung and dextroposition of the heart is designated as scimitar syndrome. Most cases are presented in infantile period and adult presentation is exceedingly rare. Our patient, a 38-year-old man, was admitted to a doctor with flu-like complaint and because of abnormalities on chest X-ray he was sent to our clinic. He did not have any chronic complaints such as shortness of breath and fatigue. After investigation, scimitar syndrome was diagnosed. Left renal agenesis was determined with abdominal examination. Best of our knowledge in literature we did not detect any case both with Scimitar syndrome and renal agenesis, and we wanted to report the asymptomatic adult Scimitar syndrome case with left renal agenesis.
  1 4,367 321
Frequency of human immunodeficiency virus infection among students of tertiary and secondary institutions in an endemic state
Abdulazeez Abubakar
April 2012, 4(4):170-173
DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.94941  PMID:22536559
Background: Students are pivotal to manpower development and technological advancement of any nation. Nigerian nation was recently ranked third human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) most endemic nation in the world Aim: The study was designed to determine the frequency of HIV infection among Nigerian tertiary and secondary institution students. Materials and Methods: A HIV screening test was conducted on 1,978 apparently healthy students composed of 981 males and 997 females aged 11-35 years, randomly selected from some Nigerian tertiary and secondary institutions Results: Overall, the sero-prevalence rate of 13.7% was recorded consisting 9.9% in the tertiary and 3.8% in secondary institutions. The distribution of the infection showed no significant difference by age (χ2 =1.07, P>0.05) and by gender (χ2 =0.85, P>0.05). Also, the prevalence had no significant association with the settlement of students (χ2 =0.96, P>0.05) and the status of educational institutions (χ2 =1.42, P>0.05). Conclusion: The findings indicate a high HIV prevalence rate among students in this part of the globe. General behavioral changes about sex among the students are suggested.
  1 3,300 324