North American Journal of Medical Sciences

REVIEW ARTICLE
Year
: 2010  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 10  |  Page : 444--456

The multi-systemic nature of diabetes mellitus: Genotype or phenotype?


Graham Wilfred Ewing1, Syed Hasan Parvez2 
1 Montague Healthcare, Mulberry House, 6 Vine Farm Close, Cotgrave, Nottingham NG12 3TU, United Kingdom
2 CNRS Neuroendocrine Unit, Institute Alfred Fessard of Neurosciences, Bât 5, Parc Chateau CNRS, 91190 Gif Sur Yvette, France

Correspondence Address:
Graham Wilfred Ewing
Mulberry House, 6 Vine Farm Close, Cotgrave, Nottingham NG12 3TU
United Kingdom

Background: This article discusses factors which materially influence the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus but which may be overlooked by the prevailing biomedical paradigm. That cognition can be mathematically linked to the function of the autonomic nervous system and physiological systems casts new light upon the mechanisms responsible for homeostasis and origins of disease. In particular, it highlights the limitations of the reductionist biomedical approach which considers mainly the biochemistry of single pathologies rather than considering the neural mechanisms which regulate the function of physiological systems, and inherent visceral organs; and which are subsequently manifest as biochemistries of varying degrees of complexity and severity. As a consequence, histopathological tests are fraught with inherent limitations and many categories of drugs are significantly ineffective. Aims: Such limitations may be explained if disease (in particular diabetes mellitus) has multiple origins, is multi-systemic in nature and, depending upon the characteristics of each pathology, is influenced by genotype and/or phenotype. Results:This article highlights the influence of factors which are not yet considered re. the aetiology of diabetes mellitus e.g. the influence of light and sensory input upon the stability of the autonomic nervous system; the influence of raised plasma viscosity upon rates of reaction; the influence of viruses and/or of modified live viruses given in vaccinations; systemic instability, in particular the adverse influence of drinks and lack of exercise upon the body«SQ»s prevailing pH and its subsequent influence upon levels of magnesium and other essential trace elements. Conclusions: This application of the top-down systems biology approach may provide a plausible and inclusive explanation for the nature and occurrence of diabetes mellitus.


How to cite this article:
Ewing GW, Parvez SH. The multi-systemic nature of diabetes mellitus: Genotype or phenotype?.North Am J Med Sci 2010;2:444-456


How to cite this URL:
Ewing GW, Parvez SH. The multi-systemic nature of diabetes mellitus: Genotype or phenotype?. North Am J Med Sci [serial online] 2010 [cited 2022 Sep 30 ];2:444-456
Available from: https://www.najms.org/article.asp?issn=1947-2714;year=2010;volume=2;issue=10;spage=444;epage=456;aulast=Ewing;type=0