Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
Visit old site
Home Print this page Email this page Small font size Default font size Increase font size
Users Online: 483

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 253-258

Respiratory burst enzymes, pro-oxidants and antioxidants status in Bangladeshi population with β-thalassemia major

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Date of Web Publication25-Jun-2015

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Hossain Uddin Shekhar
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka - 1000
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1947-2714.159329

Rights and Permissions

Background: Oxidative stress is intimately associated with many diseases, including β-thalassemia. Aim: The study was to estimate the status of respiratory burst enzymes, pro-oxidants, and antioxidants in β-thalassemia major patients in Bangladesh and to compare with apparently healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: A total of 49 subjects were recruited which included 25 patients (age range 5 to 40 years) with β-thalassemia major and 24 controls (age and sex matched). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) represented respiratory burst enzymes; malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid hydroperoxide (LHP), and xanthine oxidase (XO) were measured as pro-oxidants; and glutathione S transferase (GST), vitamin C (Vit.C), and glutathione (GSH) were the measured antioxidants. Results: The activity of SOD was significantly (P < 0.001) increased by about 79% and the activity of CAT was significantly (P < 0.001) decreased by more than 34% in the blood of β-thalassemia major patients compared to the control group. The content of pro-oxidants such as MDA, LHP, and XO was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in patients by about 228%, 241.3% and 148.1% respectively compared to control group. The level of GSH and Vit.C were significantly (P = 0.000) decreased in patients by about 59% and 81% versus the healthy group, respectively; and GST activity was significantly (P < 0.001) declined by 44.25% in patients group. Conclusion: β-thalassemia major patients demonstrate raised oxidative stress compared to healthy subjects.

Keywords: Antioxidants, Children, Free radicals, Respiratory burst enzymes, Sickle cell disease

How to cite this article:
Hossain M, Ismail M, Tanu AR, Shekhar HU. Respiratory burst enzymes, pro-oxidants and antioxidants status in Bangladeshi population with β-thalassemia major. North Am J Med Sci 2015;7:253-8

How to cite this URL:
Hossain M, Ismail M, Tanu AR, Shekhar HU. Respiratory burst enzymes, pro-oxidants and antioxidants status in Bangladeshi population with β-thalassemia major. North Am J Med Sci [serial online] 2015 [cited 2023 Mar 21];7:253-8. Available from: https://www.najms.org/text.asp?2015/7/6/253/159329

  Introduction Top

Beta-thalassemias (both homo- and heterozygote), one common form of hemoglobinopathy, are a group of hereditary blood disorders caused by moderately low levels of hemoglobin synthesis or the absence of the beta chains of hemoglobin. [1],[2] Beta-thalassemias are more common in Mediterranean countries, the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent, and many parts of Southeast Asia. [3] Since there is no effective treatment of β-thalassemia except frequent blood transfusions and bone marrow transplants, the purpose of this study was to provide some valuable information about the patients to treat them properly, though this will not reduce the number of patients except declining those with oxidative stress. Beta-thalassemia is accompanied with heart diseases, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, hypogonadism, and thyroid gland-related disorders. [4],[5] More common complications include metabolic irregulation, iron overload, chronic hypoxia, and cell damage. [6] The terminology"oxidative stress" points to a shift in the equilibrium between oxidants and antioxidants, in favor of oxidants. [7] Oxidative stress is a common mechanism in the progression of many disorders like β-thalassemia major, cardiovascular failure, cancer, renal and neurological diseases, infections, etc. [8],[9],[10] Excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as the induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) are the markers of this process that exceed the capacity of the antioxidant defenses, consequently, actuates various oxidations in both intracellular and extracellular components of the red blood cells in β-thalassemia major patients. [11],[12],[13] ROS are generated during the intracellular catabolism that requires oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor [14] and produce intermediates such as O -2 , H 2 O 2, and OH - radicals, even in healthy individuals.­ [15],[16] Enzymes such as xanthine oxidase (XO), NADPH oxidase, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), cytochrome P450, cyclo-oxygenase, and lipoxygenase are also responsible for generating ROS during the repeated cycles of hypoxia/re-oxygenation or ischemia/reperfusion. [17],[18] Furthermore, malondialdehyde (MDA) is produced due to the degradation of polyunsaturated lipids by ROS [19] that cause toxic stress in cells. [20] Major ROS defense mechanisms include enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The non-enzymatic system includes antioxidants like reduced glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid (Vit. C), riboflavin, zinc, carotenoids, and uric acid, as well as metal-binding proteins. [21]

Blood transfusion is the typical treatment of beta-thalassemia major that can cause complications of iron overload [22] but the introduction of chelating agents can control and combat it, resulting in the inhibition of ROS-generation and regulation of LPO-processes that leads to improve life expectancy. [23] The aim of this work is to study the level of oxidative stress as a central pathological process in the blood of β-Thalassemia major patients in the form of the status of respiratory burst enzymes, pro-oxidants and antioxidants for the better treatment of Bangladeshi patients.

  Materials and Methods Top


A total of 49 subjects were recruited: 25 β-thalassemia major patients, aged 5 to 40 years, from Bangladesh Thalassemia Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh and 24 age- and sex-matched, apparently healthy subjects who served as controls. Institutional ethical clearance was obtained and conset was obtained from patients and parents of patients.

Sample collection and analysis

A blood sample (6 ml) was collected, then spun for serum, and was used to measure the serum concentration of lipid hydroperoxide (LHP), Vit. C, GSH, MDA, as well as serum activities of CAT, glutathione S transferase (GST), SOD, and XO. All the parameters were measured using colorimetric methods and reagents used were of analytical grade. MDA was measured with a method based on the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assay, a colorimetric method described by Satoh. [24] XO activity was determined using the method described by Shintani. [25] LHP was estimated by the method of Yagi. [26] The serum activities of SOD and CAT were assessed by the method of Beyer and Fridovich [27] and L. Goth, [28] respectively. The activity of serum GST and the content of GSH were determined by using 1-Chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene [29] and by Beutler et al. [30] using 5,5'-dithiobis-(2- nitrobenzoic acid) respectively. Vit. C was estimated by the method of Lowry et al. [31]

Statistical analysis

Statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS, version 16 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and P-values were set at 0.05. The independent T - test was performed to explore the statistically significant difference between β-thalassemia major patients and controls. Results were expressed as Mean ± SD (standard deviation). Bivariate analysis was carried out to find out the relationship among the target variables.

Subjects gave their consent. All authors declare that written assent was obtained from each subject before being enrolled into the study. The authors declare that this study was performed under the ethical standards of the ethical review committee of the β-Thalassemia Hospital and the study protocol was approved by the Human Ethics Committee of Dhaka University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

  Results Top

Baseline features of beta-thalassemia major patients and controls are presented in [Table 1]. The average age (in years) of the study subjects was almost similar and the sex was also matched. The mean heights and weights of the controls were higher by 2.95% and 18.4%, respectively, compared to patients. So the body mass index (BMI) of patients (19.85 kg/m 2 ) was 13.36% lower than the controls (22.91 kg/m 2 ).
Table 1: Baseline characteristic of study subjects

Click here to view

[Table 2] represents the results of respiratory burst enzymes, pro-oxidants, and antioxidants in beta-thalassemia major patients compared with healthy individuals. The activity of SOD was significantly lower in patients, whereas the CAT activity was significantly higher in patients compared to the controls. Serum XO activity was found significantly higher in beta-thalassemia subjects compared to controls. The level of pro-oxidants, MDA and LHP, were significantly higher in patients in comparison to healthy subjects. Serum levels of GSH and Vit. C, and GST activity were significantly lower in patients with β-thalassemia major as compared to controls.
Table 2: Mean comparison between controls and patients

Click here to view

The comparison of all the parameters in males and females is presented in [Table 3]. The activity of respiratory burst enzymes (i.e., SOD and CAT) was significantly different in males and females of both groups except for CAT activity of the control group. The content of LHP in males and females was significantly different between both groups. XO activity and level of MDA in males and female were significantly different in the control group but not in patients group. Although there is no any significant difference of GSH and Vit. C level in males and females of both the studied groups, the activity of GST was significantly different between both groups.
Table 3: Mean comparison of parameters in males and females of both groups

Click here to view

In the control group, moderately positive correlations were found between SOD and MDA (r = 0.136), MDA and CAT (r = 0.209), MDA and LHP (r = 0.194), and between GSH and GST (r = 0.340). Highly significant negative correlations were found between GST and Vit. C (r = −0.561), but moderate negative correlations were found between SOD and LHP (r = −0.292), LHP and GSH (r = −0.292), MDA and GSH (r = −0.272), CAT and Vit. C (r = −0.244), GSH and XO (r = −0.277), and SOD and GSH (r = −0.211). In the patient group, significant positive correlation was found between MDA and LHP (r = 0.410); moderate positive correlations were found between CAT and LHP (r = 0.238), XO and SOD (r = 0.363) and CAT and Vit. C (r = 0.274); moderate negative correlations were found between GSH and CAT (r = −0.372), XO and CAT (r = −0.388), and XO and Vit. C (r = −0.274).

  Discussion Top

This study was designed to investigate the respiratory burst enzymes (SOD and CAT), pro-oxidants (MDA, XO, and LHP), antioxidants (GSH, Vit. C, and GST), and the variations in male and female individuals with β-thalassemia major patients compared with normal subjects. Oxidative free radicals are generated due to the disturbance in the redox state of cells and also from environmental pollutants such as X-rays, smokes, chemicals etc. [32] Although the main function of superoxide, nitric oxide and their particularly reactive product, peroxynitrite is to kill processed pathogens by phagocytes, [33] they are involved in damaging DNA, membrane phospholipids, and proteins. β-thalassemia major is the most severe form of β-thalassemias that results from abnormal synthesis or absence of β chain of the hemoglobin molecule. Affected individuals require regular, lifelong blood transfusions, but bone marrow transplants can be curative for some children. [34] One complication of excess blood transfusions is iron overload [35],[36] that ultimately leads to the significant increase in serum ferritin levels, resulting in 37-fold more ferritinemia in β-thalassemia patients compared to controls.­ [36] Experiment in animal models showed that high liver iron levels induce the elevation of lipid peroxides and oxidants, [37],[38] as well as in thalassemia patients [39],[40] because thalassemia RBCs were more susceptible to auto-oxidation than normal cells. [41] Serum MDA, LHP and XO were studied as biomarkers of tissue injury and oxidative stress. XO is responsible for the catalysis to generate superoxide radical from hypoxanthine. [32] It has been found that there was an increase production of XO in sickle transgenic mice following hypoxia and has deleterious effects after reperfusion. [32],[42] So the increase in XO activity leads to increased production of LHP [Table 2]. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (equivalent to MDA) are well-recognized biomarker of lipid peroxidation.­ [43],[44] The significant increase of serum MDA and LHP findings in β-thalassemia major patients and their controls group are presented in [Table 2] (P < 0.001). Our report is consistent with other different studies, where thalassemia patients showed increased MDA and LHP levels. [36],[45],[46] There was no significant difference in MDA levels between males and female samples in the patient group that is consistent with the Abdalla et al. study. [36] Since SOD helps to out-compete the damaging reactions of superoxide anion by converting to hydrogen peroxide [47] that is further decomposed to simple products, water and oxygen molecule, by CAT; [48] the study of these antioxidant enzymes (respiratory burst enzymes) could be very informative as they are the first line of defense against oxidative stress. [49] In this present study, the findings of serum levels of SOD were significantly (P < 0.001) increased in patients as compared to controls [Table 2]; and the activity of CAT was significantly (P < 0.001) declined in patients when compared to controls group [Table 2]. Other studies had also found that SOD levels of β-thalassemia patients were significantly higher when compared to controls. [36],[49] This increase in SOD indicates the results of oxidative stress in β-thalassemia patients as they may play a compensatory mechanism to scavenge excess superoxide anion. [50],[51] On the other hand, the decrease in CAT activity in patients may be due to the decrease in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphatase (NADPH) that is crucial for the maintenance of CAT activity because CAT monomer contains a high affinity binding site for NADPH. A second contributing cause may be at play. It is possible that iron may deplete H 2 O 2 through Fenton chemistry, which would result in loss of induction of CAT expression by H 2 O 2 . Iron converts hydrogen peroxide to hydroxyl radical, peroxyl radical, and hydroxyl anion. It is notable that production of hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals may accentuate lipid peroxidation chain reactions; this would explain the association of this disorder with lipid peroxidation. [52],[53],[54],[55] Findings by Walter et al. [56] and by Cheng et al. [57] suggest that β-thalassemia major patients have significantly decreased levels of NADPH. So our finding was obvious. When the samples were divided into male and female samples, female sample exhibited significantly (P < 0.05) higher SOD and CAT activities as compared with male sample in both groups [Table 3] except the CAT activity in controls and this finding was similar to the study by Bolzαn et al. [58] SOD is negatively correlated with the CAT value in the patient group (r = −0.02) that is similar to the findings by Bogdanska et al. [Table 4]. [59] Many other studies showed that the patients with β-Thalassemia major have high lipid peroxidation products and low level of antioxidants compared to the normal individuals. [36],[60],[61] In our study, a significant (P < 0.001) decreased GST activity was found in the patients as compared to the healthy subjects [Table 2]. When the samples were studied as male and female samples, the female samples displayed higher GST activities than the male samples in both studied samples [Table 3], and it was consistent with the report by Hunaiti and al-Shareef. [62] The contents of GSH and Vit. C in β-thalassemia major patients were significantly (P < 0.001) lower when compared to control group [Table 2]. There was no significant (P > 0.05) difference in GSH and Vit. C levels in males and females of both the studied groups [Table 3]. The results suggest that there was a significant increase in free radicals or ROS levels in β-thalassemia major patients, and as the level of antioxidants were very low, the patient group suffers more from oxidative stress. Demographic data analysis has also played a very important role in the diagnosis and confirmation of β-thalassemia. The patients' family histories, BMI, duration of transfusions, transfusion intervals, and age were very much important for the quick diagnosis of β-thalassemia. Finally, it can be inferred that overall experiment of this research was performed to evaluate the overall status of respiratory burst enzymes, pro-oxidants, and antioxidant level for the proper and better treatment, and management of beta-thalassemia patients as the findings by Attia et al. [60] suggest that proper treatment with antioxidant vitamins like vitamins A, C, and E could decrease the pro-oxidant level and increase the antioxidant levels, and even could solve the activities of CAT and SOD. As Bangladesh is an economically poor country, costly treatments (frequent blood transfusions and bone marrow transplantss) of β-thalassemia is very much impossible for the general people.
Table 4: Bivariate analysis between patients and controls

Click here to view

  Conclusion Top

The findings from this study show that patients with β-thalassemia major demonstrate increased oxidative stress compared to the control groups.

  References Top

Galanello R, Origa R. Beta-thalassemia. Orphanet J Rare Dis 2010;5:11.  Back to cited text no. 1
Shekhar HU. Comment on: Oxidative stress and antioxidant status in beta-thalassemia heterozygotes. Rev Bras Hematol Hemoter 2013;35:385-6.  Back to cited text no. 2
Oliver NF. The β-Thalassemias. N Engl J Med 1999;341:99-109  Back to cited text no. 3
Borgna-Pignatti C, Galanello R. Thalassemias and related disorders: Quantitative disorders of hemoglobin synthesis. In: Greer JP, Foerster J, Lukens JN, Rodgers GM, Paraskevas F, editors. Wintrobe's Clinical Hematology. 11 th ed. Vol. 42. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2004. p. 1319-65.  Back to cited text no. 4
Ferdaus MZ, Hasan AK, Shekhar HU. Analysis of serum lipid profiles, metal ions and thyroid hormones levels abnormalities in beta-thalassaemic children of Bangladesh. J Pak Med Assoc 2010;60:360-4.  Back to cited text no. 5
Weatherall DJ, Clegg JB. Thalassemia revised. Cell 1982;29:7-9.  Back to cited text no. 6
Ismail M, Hossain MF, Tanu AR, Shekhar HU. Effect of spirulina intervention on oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Biomed Res Int 2015;2015:486120.  Back to cited text no. 7
Phumala N, Porasuphatana S, Unchern S, Pootrakul P, Fucharoen S, Chantharaksri U. Hemin: A possible cause of oxidative stress in blood circulation of beta-thalassemia/hemoglobin E disease. Free Radic Res 2003;37:129-35.  Back to cited text no. 8
Yedgar S, Hovav T, Barshtein G. Red blood cell intracellular interactions in oxidative stress states. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 1999;21:189-93.  Back to cited text no. 9
Lang KS, Roll B, Myssina S, Schittenhelm M, Scheel-Walter HG, Kanz L, et al. Enhanced erythrocyte apoptosis is sickle cell anemia, thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Cell Physiol Biochem 2002;12:365-72.  Back to cited text no. 10
Ziouzenkova O, Asatryan L, Sevanian A. Oxidative stress resulting from haemolysis and formation of catalytically active hemoglobin: Protective strategies. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999;37:125-32.  Back to cited text no. 11
Mohandas N, Chasis JA. Red blood cell deformability, membrane material properties and shape: Regulation of transmembrane, skeletal and cytosolic proteins and lipids. Semin Hematol 1993;30:171-92.  Back to cited text no. 12
Junker M, Creutz CE. Ca(2+)-dependent binding of endonexin (annexin IV) to membranes: Analysis of the effects of membrane lipid composition and development of a predictive model for the binding interaction. Biochemistry 1994;33:8930-40.  Back to cited text no. 13
Nur E, Biemond BJ, Otten HM, Brandjes DP, Schnog JJ; CURAMA Study Group. Oxidative stress in sickle cell disease; pathophysiology and potential implications for disease management. Am J Hematol 2011;86:484-9.  Back to cited text no. 14
Dröge W. Free radicals in the physiological control of cell function. Physiol Rev 2002;82:47-95.  Back to cited text no. 15
Tu BP, Weissman JS. Oxidative protein folding in eukaryotes: Mechanisms and consequences. J Cell Biol 2004;164:341-6.  Back to cited text no. 16
Xu W, Chi L, Row BW, Xu R, Ke Y, Xu B, et al. Increased oxidative stress is associated with chronic intermittent hypoxia-mediated brain cortical neuronal cell apoptosis in a mouse model of sleep apnea. Neuroscience 2004;126:313-23.  Back to cited text no. 17
Yuan G, Adhikary G, McCormick AA, Holcroft JJ, Kumar GK, Prabhakar NR. Role of oxidative stress in intermittent hypoxia-induced immediate early gene activation in rat PC12 cells. J Physiol 2004;557:773-83.  Back to cited text no. 18
Pryor WA, Stanley JP. Letter: A suggested mechanism for the production of malonaldehyde during the autoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Nonenzymatic production of prostaglandin endoperoxides during autoxidation. J Org Chem 1975;40:3615-7.   Back to cited text no. 19
Farmer EE, Davoine C. Reactive electrophile species. Curr Opin Plant Biol 2007;10:380-6.  Back to cited text no. 20
Chirico EN, Pialoux V. Role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of sickle cell disease. IUBMB Life 2012;64:72-80.   Back to cited text no. 21
Livrea MA, Tesoriere L, Pintaudi AM, Calabrese A, Maggio A, Freisleben HJ, et al. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status in beta-thalassemia major: Iron overload and depletion of lipid-soluble antioxidants. Blood 1996;88:3608-14.  Back to cited text no. 22
Al-Elq AH, Al-Saeed HH. Endocrinopathies in patients with thalassemias. Saudi Med J 2004;25:1347-51.  Back to cited text no. 23
Satoh K. Serum lipid peroxide in cerebrovascular disorders determined by a new colorimetric method. Clin Chim Acta 1978;90:37-43.  Back to cited text no. 24
Shintani H. Determination of xanthine oxidase. Pharm Anal Acta 2013;S7:004.  Back to cited text no. 25
Yagi K. Simple procedure for specific assay of lipid hydroperoxides in serum or plasma. Methods Mol Biol 1998;108:107-10.  Back to cited text no. 26
Beyer WF Jr, Fridovich I. Assaying for superoxide dismutase activity: Some large consequences of minor changes in conditions. Anal Biochem 1987;161:559-66.  Back to cited text no. 27
Góth L. A simple method for determination of serum catalase activity and revision of reference range. Clin Chim Acta 1991;196:143-51.  Back to cited text no. 28
Warholm M. Glutathione-s-transferases from human liver. In: Alton M, editor. Methods of Enzymology. New York, NY, USA: Academic Press; 1985. p. 500-1.  Back to cited text no. 29
Beutler E, Duron O, Kelly BM. Improved method for the determination of blood glutathione. J Lab Clin Med 1963;61:882-8.  Back to cited text no. 30
Lowry OH, Lopz JA, Bessey OA. The determination of ascorbic acid in small amounts of blood serum. J Biol Chem 1945;160:609-15.  Back to cited text no. 31
Adelakun A, Ajani O, Ogunleye T, Disu E, Kosoko A, Arinola G. Respiratory burst enzymes and oxidant-antioxidant status in Nigerian children with sickle cell disease. Br Biotechnol J 2014;4:270-8.  Back to cited text no. 32
Nathan C, Shiloh MU. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates in the relationship between mammalian hosts and microbial pathogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2000;97:8841-8.  Back to cited text no. 33
Muncie HL Jr, Campbell J. Alpha and beta thalassemia. Am Fam Physician 2009;80:339-44.  Back to cited text no. 34
Kassab-Chekir A, Laradi S, Ferchichi S, Haj Khelil A, Feki M, Amri F, et al. Oxidant, antioxidant status and metabolic data in patients with beta-thalassemia. Clin Chim Acta 2003;338:79-86.  Back to cited text no. 35
Abdalla MY, Fawzi M, Al-Maloul SR, El-Banna N, Tayyem RF, Ahmad IM. Increased oxidative stress and iron overload in Jordanian β-thalassemic children. Hemoglobin 2011;35:67-79.  Back to cited text no. 36
Knutson MD, Walter PB, Ames BN, Viteri FE. Both iron deficiency and daily iron supplements increase lipid peroxidation in rats. J Nutr 2000;130:621-8.  Back to cited text no. 37
Ryan TP, Aust SD. The role of iron in oxygen-mediated toxicities. Crit Rev Toxicol 1992;22:119-41.  Back to cited text no. 38
Selek S, Aslan M, Horoz M, Gur M, Erel O. Oxidative status and serum PON1 activity in beta-thalassemia minor. Clin Biochem 2007;40:287-91.  Back to cited text no. 39
Ludwiczek S, Aigner E, Theurl I, Weiss G. Cytokine-mediated regulation of iron transport in human monocytic cells. Blood 2003;101:4148-54.  Back to cited text no. 40
Dirican M, Safak O, Uncu G, Sarandöl E. Susceptibility of red blood cell lipids to in vitro oxidation and antioxidant status in preeclampsia. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2008;140:158-64.  Back to cited text no. 41
Osarogiagbon UR, Choong S, Belcher JD, Vercellotti GM, Paller MS, Hebbel RP. Reperfusion injury pathophysiology in sickle transgenic mice. Blood 2000;96:314-20.  Back to cited text no. 42
Antunes F, Salvador A, Marinho HS, Alves R, Pinto RE. Lipid peroxidation in mitochondrial inner membranes. I. An integrative kinetic model. Free Radic Biol Med 1996;21:917-43.  Back to cited text no. 43
Jain SK. The accumulation of malonyldialdehyde, a product of fatty acid peroxidation, can disturb aminophospholipid organization in the membrane bilayer of human erythrocytes. J Biol Chem 1984;259:3391-4.  Back to cited text no. 44
Cighetti G, Duca L, Bortone L, Sala S, Nava I, Fiorelli G, et al. Oxidative status and malondialdehyde in beta-thalassaemia patients. Eur J Clin Invest 2002;32 (Suppl 1):55-60.  Back to cited text no. 45
Grotto D, Santa Maria LD, Boeira S, Valentini J, Charão MF, Moro AM, et al. Rapid quantification of malondialdehyde in plasma by high performance liquid chromatography-visible detection. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2007;43:619-24.  Back to cited text no. 46
Moreno-Manzano V, Ishikawa Y, Lucio-Cazana J, Kitamura M. Selective involvement of superoxide anion, but not downstream compounds hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite, in tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced apoptosis of rat mesangial cells. J Biol Chem 2000;275:12684-91.  Back to cited text no. 47
Chelikani P, Fita I, Loewen PC. Diversity of structures and properties among catalases. Cell Mol Life Sci 2004;61:192-208.   Back to cited text no. 48
Naithani R, Chandra J, Bhattacharjee J, Verma P, Narayan S. Peroxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes in children with beta-thalassemia major. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2006;46:780-5.  Back to cited text no. 49
Das SK, Nair RC. Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and lipid peroxidation of normal and sickled erythrocytes. Br J Haematol 1980;44:87-92.  Back to cited text no. 50
Miller NJ, Rice-Evans C, Davies MJ, Gopinathan V, Milner A. A novel method for measuring antioxidant capacity and its application to monitoring the antioxidant status in premature neonates. Clin Sci (Lond) 1993;84:407-12.  Back to cited text no. 51
Vetrano AM, Heck DE, Mariano TM, Mishin V, Laskin DL, Laskin JD. Characterization of the oxidase activity in mammalian catalase. J Biol Chem 2005;280:35372-81.  Back to cited text no. 52
Gibbons NC, Wood JM, Rokos H, Schallreuter KU. Computer simulation of native epidermal enzyme structures in the presence and absence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2): Potential and pitfalls. J Invest Dermatol 2006;126:2576-82.  Back to cited text no. 53
Churbanova IY, Sevrioukova IF. Redox-dependent changes in molecular properties of mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor. J Biol Chem 2008;283:5622-31.  Back to cited text no. 54
Prousek J. Fenton chemistry in biology and medicine. Pure Appl Chem 2007;79:2325-38.  Back to cited text no. 55
Walter PB, Fung EB, Killilea DW, Jiang Q, Hudes M, Madden J, et al. Oxidative stress and inflammation in iron-overloaded patients with beta-thalassaemia or sickle cell disease. Br J Haematol 2006;135:254-63.  Back to cited text no. 56
Cheng ML, Ho HY, Tseng HC, Lee CH, Shih LY, Chiu DT. Antioxidant deficit and enhanced susceptibility to oxidative damage in individuals with different forms of alpha-thalassaemia. Br J Haematol 2005;128:119-27.  Back to cited text no. 57
Bolzán AD, Bianchi MS, Bianchi NO. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in human blood: Influence of sex, age and cigarette smoking. Clin Biochem 1997;30:449-54.  Back to cited text no. 58
Bogdanska JJ, Korneti P, Todorova B. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities in healthy male subjects in the Republic of Macedonia. Bratisl Lek Listy 2003;104:108-14.  Back to cited text no. 59
Attia MM, Sayed AM, Ibrahim FA, Mohammed AS, El-Alfy MS. Effects of antioxidant vitamins on the oxidant/anti oxidant status and liver function in homozygous beta-thalassemia. Romanian J Biophys 2011;21:93-106.  Back to cited text no. 60
Aziz BN, Al-Kataan MA, Ali WK. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in β-thalassemia patients: Effect of iron overload. Iraqi J Pharm Sci 2009;18:8-14.  Back to cited text no. 61
Hunaiti AA, al-Shareef M. Interplay between glutathione-S-transferase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in neonatal cord blood. Biol Neonate 1997;72:273-8.  Back to cited text no. 62


  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]

This article has been cited by
1 Dynamic Thiol-Disulfide Homeostasis in Children With ß-Thalassemia Trait
Burçak Kurucu, Ali Fettah, Emre Çapkinoglu, Nergiz Öner, Funda Eren, Özcan Erel, Sule Yesil, Gürses Sahin
Hemoglobin. 2022; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Role of Uric Acid Metabolism-Related Inflammation in the Pathogenesis of Metabolic Syndrome Components Such as Atherosclerosis and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis
Akifumi Kushiyama,Yusuke Nakatsu,Yasuka Matsunaga,Takeshi Yamamotoya,Keiichi Mori,Koji Ueda,Yuki Inoue,Hideyuki Sakoda,Midori Fujishiro,Hiraku Ono,Tomoichiro Asano
Mediators of Inflammation. 2016; 2016: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

  In this article
Materials and Me...
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded320    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 2    

Recommend this journal