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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 10  |  Page : 429-435

Prostate cancer for the internist

1 Department of Internal Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Montgomery Internal Medicine Residency Program, AL, 36116, USA
2 PGY-2, Department of Internal Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, 26505, USA

Correspondence Address:
Shikha Jaiswal
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Montgomery Internal Medicine Residency Program, AL, 36116
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1947-2714.168660

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In the United States, approximately 240,000 men are diagnosed annually with prostate cancer. Although effective treatment options are available for clinically localized cancer, the potential burdensome co-morbidities and attendant healthcare costs from over diagnosis and over treatment have escalated the discussion and controversy regarding appropriate screening, diagnosis, and optimal management of prostate cancer. Although the lifetime risk of developing prostate cancer is approximately 1 in 6 (~16%), the risk of dying from the disease is only ~2%. The discrepancy between the cancer incidence and lethality has led to widespread scrutiny of prostate cancer patient management, particularly for low-grade, low-stage (indolent) disease. The vast majority of men diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer are treated with interventional therapies despite studies demonstrating that even without treatment, prostate cancer-specific mortality is low. A MedLine/PubMed search was performed using PICO format (Patient, Intervention, Comparison and Outcome) identifying all relevant articles. No restrictions were used for publication dates. The terms "Prostate Cancer", "Screening", "Mortality", "Morbidity" yielded 307 results. "Diagnosis", "Prognosis" and "Survival" yielded 1504 results. Further filters were applied to narrow down the results using keywords "Prostate cancer screening guidelines 2014", "Beyond PSA", "NCCN Guidelines prostate", "MRI guided Prostate biopsy" yielding 72, 274, 54 and 568 results respectively. Of these, approximately 137 articles were found relevant and were reviewed. References from the reviewed articles were included in the final article.

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