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 Table of Contents  
TECHNICAL ARTICLE
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 9  |  Page : 429-434

Western blot: Technique, theory, and trouble shooting


Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada

Date of Web Publication14-Sep-2012

Correspondence Address:
Ping-Chang Yang
Department of Pathology & Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Room T3303, 50 Charlton Ave East, Hamilton, ON
Canada
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1947-2714.100998

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  Abstract 

Western blotting is an important technique used in cell and molecular biology. By using a western blot, researchers are able to identify specific proteins from a complex mixture of proteins extracted from cells. The technique uses three elements to accomplish this task: (1) separation by size, (2) transfer to a solid support, and (3) marking target protein using a proper primary and secondary antibody to visualize. This paper will attempt to explain the technique and theory behind western blot, and offer some ways to troubleshoot.

Keywords: Bio-medical research, protein, western blot


How to cite this article:
Mahmood T, Yang PC. Western blot: Technique, theory, and trouble shooting. North Am J Med Sci 2012;4:429-34

How to cite this URL:
Mahmood T, Yang PC. Western blot: Technique, theory, and trouble shooting. North Am J Med Sci [serial online] 2012 [cited 2021 Dec 6];4:429-34. Available from: https://www.najms.org/text.asp?2012/4/9/429/100998


  Introduction Top


Western blot is often used in research to separate and identify proteins. In this technique a mixture of proteins is separated based on molecular weight, and thus by type, through gel electrophoresis. These results are then transferred to a membrane producing a band for each protein. The membrane is then incubated with labels antibodies specific to the protein of interest.

The unbound antibody is washed off leaving only the bound antibody to the protein of interest. The bound antibodies are then detected by developing the film. As the antibodies only bind to the protein of interest, only one band should be visible. The thickness of the band corresponds to the amount of protein present; thus doing a standard can indicate the amount of protein present. The paper will first describe the protocol for western blot, accompanied by pictures to help the reader and theory to rationalize the protocol. This will be followed by the theoretical explanation of the procedure, and in the later section, troubleshooting tips for common problems.

Technique

Cell lysis to extract protein

Protein can be extracted from different kind of samples, such as tissue or cells. Below is the protocol to extract proteins from adherent cells.

Adherent cells:

  1. Wash cells in the tissue culture flask or dish by adding cold phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and rocking gently. Discard PBS. (Tip: Keep tissue culture dish on ice throughout).
  2. Add PBS and use a cell scraper to dislodge the cells. Pipette the mixture into microcentrifuge tubes.
  3. Centrifuge at 1500 RPM for 5 minutes and discard the supernatant.
  4. Add 180 μL of ice cold cell lysis buffer with 20 μL fresh protease inhibitor cocktail. (Tip: If protein concentration is not high enough at the end, it is advised to repeat the procedure with a higher proportion of protease inhibitor cocktail).
  5. Incubate for 30 minutes on ice, and then clarify the lysate by spinning for 10 minutes at 12,000 RPM, at 4°C.
  6. Transfer supernatant (or protein mix) to a fresh tube and store on ice or frozen at -20°C or -80°C.
  7. Measure the concentration of protein using a spectrophotometer.
Sample preparation



  1. determine the volume of protein extract to ensure 50 μg in each well.
  2. Add 5 μL sample buffer to the sample, and make the volume in each lane equalized using double distilled H 2 O (dd H 2 O). Mix well. (Tip: Total volume of 15 μL per lane is suggested).
  3. Heat the samples with dry plate for 5 minutes at 100°C.


Gel preparation



  1. After preparing the 10% stacking gel solution, assemble the rack for gel solidification [Figure 1]. (Tip: 10% AP and TEMED solidify the solution; therefore, both gels can be prepared at the same time, if the abovementioned reagents are not added until the end).
  2. Add stacking gel solution carefully until the level is equal to the green bar holding the glass plates [Figure 2]. Add H 2 O to the top. Wait for 15-30 minutes until the gel turning solidified. (Tip: Using a suction pipette can make the process of adding the gel to the glass plate easier).
  3. Overlay the stacking gel with the separating gel, after removing the water. (Tip: It is better to tilt the apparatus and use a paper towel to remove the water).
  4. Insert the comb, ensuring that there are no air bubbles.
  5. Wait until the gel is solidified. (Tip: Solidification can be easily checked by leaving some gel solution in a tube).
Figure 1: Assembled rack for gel solidification

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Figure 2: Add gel solution using a transfer pipette

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Electrophoresis

  1. Pour the running buffer into the electrophorator [Figure 3].
  2. Place gel inside the electrophorator and connect to a power supply. (Tip: When connecting to the power source always connect red to red, and black to black).
  3. Make sure buffer covers the gel completely, and remove the comb carefully.
  4. Load marker (6 μL) followed by samples (15 μL) in to each well [Figure 4].
  5. Run the gel with low voltage (60 V) for separating gel; use higher voltage (140 V) for stacking gel [Figure 5]a and b.
  6. Run the gel for approximately an hour, or until the dye front runs off the bottom of the gel [Figure 6].
Figure 3: Add running buffer to the electrophorator

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Figure 4: Add samples and molecular marker to the gel, after removing the combs

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Figure 5: (a) Samples running through the stacking gel (lower voltage). (b): Samples running through the separating gel (higher voltage)

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Figure 6: Run the gel to the bottom of the electrophorator

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Electrotransfer

  1. Cut 6 filter sheets to fit the measurement of the gel, and one polyvinylidene fluoride (PDVF) membrane with the same dimensions.
  2. Wet the sponge and filter paper in transfer buffer, and wet the PDVF membrane in methanol.
  3. Separate glass plates and retrieve the gel.
  4. Create a transfer sandwich as follows:

    Sponge

    3 Filter Papers

    Gel PVDF

    3 Filter Papers

    (Tip: Ensure there are no air bubbles between the gel and PVDF membrane, and squeeze out extra liquid).
  5. Relocate the sandwich to the transfer apparatus, which should be placed on ice to maintain 4°C. Add transfer buffer to the apparatus, and ensure that the sandwich is covered with the buffer. Place electrodes on top of the sandwich, ensuring that the PVDF membrane is between the gel and a positive electrode [Figure 7].
  6. Transfer for 90 minutes [Figure 8]. (Tip: The running time should be proportional to the thickness of the gel, so this may be reduced to 45 minutes for 0.75 mm gels).
Figure 7: Transfer should be done on ice

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Figure 8: Membrane after transfer

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Blocking and antibody incubation

  1. Block the membrane with 5% skim milk in TBST* for 1 hour.
  2. Add primary antibody in 5% bovine serum albumin ( BSA) and incubate overnight in 4°C on a shaker [Figure 9].
  3. Wash the membrane with TBST for 5 minutes. Do this 3 times. (Tip: All washing and antibody incubation steps should be done on a shaker at room temperature to ensure even agitation).
  4. Add secondary antibody in 5% skim milk in TBST, and incubate for 1 hour.
  5. Wash the membrane with TBST for 5 minutes. Do this 3 times
  6. Prepare ECL mix (following the proportion of solution A and B provided by the manufacturer). Incubate the membrane for 1-2 minutes [Figure 10]. (Tip: Use a 1000 μL pipette to ensure that ECL covers the top and bottom of the membrane).
  7. Visualize the result in the dark room [Figure 11]. (Tip: If the background is too strong, reduce exposure time).
*, TBST: Tris-Buffered Saline Tween-20
Figure 9: Use a shaker to incubate the membrane with antibody

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Figure 10: Incubate the membrane with ECL mix using a 1000 μL pipette to help the process

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Figure 11: Use the cassette to expose the membrane in the dark room

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Recipe

  1. Dissolve the following in 800 ml of distilled H 2 O

    • 8.8 g of NaCl
    • 0.2g of KCl
    • 3g of Tris base
  2. Add 500ul of Tween-20
  3. Adjust the pH to 7.4
  4. Add distilled H 2 O to 1L
  5. Sterilize by filtration or autoclaving
Theory

Sample preparation

Cell lysates are the most common form of sample used for western blot. Protein extraction attempts to collect all the proteins in the cell cytosol. This should be done in a cold temperature with protease inhibitors to prevent denaturing of the proteins. Since tissue sample display a higher degree of structure, mechanical invention, such as homogenization, or sonication is needed to extract the proteins.

After extracting the protein, it is very important to have a good idea of the extract's concentration. This eventually allows the researcher to ensure that the samples are being compared on an equivalent basis. Protein concentration is often measured using a spectrophotometer. Using this concentration allows to measure the mass of the protein that is being loaded into each well by the relationship between concentration, mass, and volume.

After determining the appropriate volume of the sample, it is diluted into a loading buffer, which contains glycerol so that the samples sink easily into the wells of the gel. A tracking dye (bromophenol blue) is also present in the buffer allowing the researcher to see how far the separation has progressed. The sample is heated after being diluted into a loading buffer, in order to denature the higher order structure, while retaining sulfide bridges. Denaturing the high structure ensures that the negative charge of amino acids is not neutralized, enabling the protein to move in an electric field (applied during electrotransfer).

It is also very important to have positive and negative controls for the sample. For a positive control a known source of target protein, such as purified protein or a control lysate is used. This helps to confirm the identity of the protein, and the activity of the antibody. A negative control is a null cell line, such as β-actin, is used as well to confirm that the staining is not nonspecific.

Gel electrophoresis

Western blot uses two different types of agarose gel: stacking and separating gel. The higher, stacking gel is slightly acidic (pH 6.8) and has a lower acrylamide concentration making a porous gel, which separates protein poorly but allows them to form thin, sharply defined bands. The lower gel, called the separating, or resolving gel, is basic (pH 8.8), and has a higher polyacrylamide content, making the gel's pores narrower. Protein is thus separated by their size more so in this gel, as the smaller proteins to travel more easily, and hence rapidly, than larger proteins.

The proteins when loaded on the gel have a negative charge, as they have been denatured by heating, and will travel toward the positive electrode when a voltage is applied. Gels are usually made by pouring them between two glass or plastic plates, using the solution described in the protocol section. The samples and a marker are loaded into the wells, and the empty wells are loaded with sample buffer. The gel is then connected to the power supply and allowed to run. The voltage is very important, as a high voltage can overheat and distort the bands.

Blotting

After separating the protein mixture, it is transferred to a membrane. The transfer is done using an electric field oriented perpendicular to the surface of the gel, causing proteins to move out of the gel and onto the membrane. The membrane is placed between the gel surface and the positive electrode in a sandwich. The sandwich includes a fiber pad (sponge) at each end, and filter papers to protect the gel and blotting membrane [Figure 12]. Here two things are very important: (1) the close contact of gel and membrane to ensure a clear image and (2) the placement of the membrane between the gel and the positive electrode. The membrane must be placed as such, so that the negatively charged proteins can migrate from the gel to the membrane. This type of transfer is called electrophoretic transfer, and can be done in semi-dry or wet conditions. Wet conditions are usually more reliable as it is less likely to dry out the gel, and is preferred for larger proteins.
Figure 12: Assembly of a sandwich in western Blot

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The membrane, the solid support, is an essential part of this process. There are two types of membrane: nitrocellulose and PVDF. Nitrocellulose is used for its high affinity for protein and its retention abilities. However, it is brittle, and does not allow the membrane to be used for reprobing. In this regard, PVDF membranes provide better mechanical support and allow the blot to be reprobed and stored. However, the background is higher in the PVDF membranes and therefore, washing carefully is very important.

Washing, blocking and antibody incubation

Blocking is a very important step of western blotting, as it prevents antibodies from binding to the membrane nonspecifically. Blocking is often made with 5% BSA or nonfat dried milk diluted in TBST to reduce the background.

Nonfat dried milk is often preferred as it is inexpensive and widely available. However, milk proteins are not compatible with all detection labels, so care must be taken to choose the appropriate blocking solution. For example, BSA blocking solutions are preferred with biotin and AP antibody labels, and antiphosphoprotein antibodies, since milk contains casein, which is itself a phosphoprotein and biotin, thus interfering with the assay results. It is often a good strategy to incubate the primary antibody with BSA since it is usually needed in higher amounts than the secondary antibody. Putting it in BSA solution allows the antibody to be reused, if the blot does not give good result.

The concentration of the antibody depends on the instruction by the manufacturer. The antibody can be diluted in a wash buffer, such as PBS or TBST. Washing is very important as it minimized background and removes unbound antibody. However, the membrane should not be left to wash for a really long time, as it can also reduce the signal.

The membrane is then detected using the label antibody, usually with an enzyme such as horseradish peroxidase (HRP), which is detected by the signal it produces corresponding to the position of the target protein. This signal is captured on a film which is usually developed in a dark room.

Quantification

It is very important to be aware that the data produced with a western blot is typically considered to be semi-quantitative. This is because it provides a relative comparison of protein levels, but not an absolute measure of quantity. There are two reasons for this; first, there are variations in loading and transfer rates between the samples in separate lanes which are different on separate blots. These differences will need to be standardized before a more precise comparison can be made. Second, the signal generated by detection is not linear across the concentration range of samples. Thus, since the signal produced is not linear, it should not be used to model the concentration.

Troubleshooting

Even though the procedure for western blot is simple, many problems can arise, leading to unexpected results. The problem can be grouped into five categories: (1) unusual or unexpected bands, (2) no bands, (3) faint bands or weak signal, (4) high background on the blot, and (5) patchy or uneven spots on the blot.

Unusual or unexpected bands can be due to protease degradation, which produces bands at unexpected positions. In this case it is advisable to use a fresh sample which had been kept on ice or alter the antibody. If the protein seems to be in too high of a position, then reheating the sample can help to break the quaternary protein structure. Similarly, blurry bands are often caused by high voltage or air bubbles present during transfer. In this case, it should be ensured that the gel is run at a lower voltage, and that the transfer sandwich is prepared properly. In addition, changing the running buffer can also help the problem. Nonflat bands can be the result of too fast of a travel through the gel, due to low resistance. To fix this the gel should be optimized to fit the sample. Finally, white (negative) bands on the film are due to too much protein or antibody.

Another problem: no bands can also arise due to many reasons related to antibody, antigen, or buffer used. If an improper antibody is used, either primary or secondary, the band will not show. In addition, the concentration of the antibody should be appropriate as well; if the concentration is too low, the signal may not be visible. It is important to remember that some antibodies are not to be used for western blot. Another reason for no visible bands is the lowest concentration or absence of the antigen. In this case, antigen from another source can be used to confirm whether the problem lies with the sample or with other elements, such as the antibody. Moreover, prolonged washing can also decrease the signal. Buffers can also contribute to the problem. It should be ensured that buffers like the transfer buffer, TBST, running buffer and ECL are all new and noncontaminated. If the buffers are contaminated with sodium azide, it can inactivate HRP.

Similarly, weak signals can be caused by low concentration of antibody or antigen. Increasing exposure time can also help to make the band clearer. Another reason could be nonfat dry milk masking the antigen. In this case use BSA or decrease the amount of milk used.

High background is often caused by too high concentration of the antibody, which can bind to PVDF membranes. Another problem could be the buffers, which may be too old. Increasing the washing time can also help to decrease the background. Additionally, too high of an exposure can also lead to this problem. Therefore, it is advisable to check different exposure times to achieve an optimum time.

Patchy and uneven spots on the blot are usually caused by improper transfer. If there are air bubbles trapped between the gel and the membrane, it will appear darker on the film. It is also important to use a shaker for all incubation, so that there is no uneven agitation during the incubation. Once again, washing is of utmost importance as well to wash the background. This problem can also be caused by antibodies binding to the blocking agents; in this case another blocking agent should be tried. Filtering the blocking agent can also help to remove some contaminants. Finally, this problem can also be caused by aggregation of the secondary antibody; in this case, the secondary antibody should be centrifuged and filtered to remove the aggregated.


  Conclusion Top


Western blot is a technique that is very useful for protein detection as it allows the user to quantify the protein expression as well. This paper covered the protocol, the theory behind that protocol, and some troubleshooting techniques. Western blot can be seen as an intricate balance, as the researcher attempts to get a nonspecific, yet strong signal.


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9], [Figure 10], [Figure 11], [Figure 12]


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39 Studies in Lung cancer cytokine proteomics: A review
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40 The role of glycosylation in the N-terminus of the hemagglutinin of a unique H4N2 with a natural polybasic cleavage site in virus fitness in vitro and in vivo
Marcel Gischke,Ola Bagato,Angele Breithaupt,David Scheibner,Claudia Blaurock,Melina Vallbracht,Axel Karger,Beate Crossley,Jutta Veits,Eva Böttcher-Friebertshäuser,Thomas C. Mettenleiter,Elsayed M. Abdelwhab
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41 Human circular RNA hsa_circRNA_101705 (circTXNDC11) regulates renal cancer progression by regulating MAPK/ERK pathway
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42 PVT1 Knockdown Inhibits Autophagy and Improves Gemcitabine Sensitivity by Regulating the MiR-143/HIF-1a/VMP1 Axis in Pancreatic Cancer
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43 A ChIP-exo screen of 887 Protein Capture Reagents Program transcription factor antibodies in human cells
William K.M. Lai,Luca Mariani,Gerson Rothschild,Edwin R. Smith,Bryan J. Venters,Thomas R. Blanda,Prashant K. Kuntala,Kylie Bocklund,Joshua Mairose,Sarah N. Dweikat,Katelyn Mistretta,Matthew J. Rossi,Daniela James,James T. Anderson,Sabrina K. Phanor,Wanwei Zhang,Zibo Zhao,Avani P. Shah,Katherine Novitzky,Eileen McAnarney,Michael-C. Keogh,Ali Shilatifard,Uttiya Basu,Martha L. Bulyk,B. Franklin Pugh
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44 Icaritin alleviates docetaxel-induced skin injury by suppressing reactive oxygen species via estrogen receptors
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45 Overexpression of vacuolar H + -pyrophosphatase (H + -PPase) gene from Ammopiptanthus nanus enhances drought tolerance in maize
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46 A multi-epitope chimeric protein elicited a strong antibody response and partial protection against Edwardsiella ictaluri in Nile tilapia
Vimbai Irene Machimbirike,Natapol Pornputtapong,Saengchan Senapin,Eakapol Wangkahart,Prapansak Srisapoome,Pongsak Khunrae,Triwit Rattanarojpong
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47 Metabolic responsiveness to training depends on insulin sensitivity and protein content of exosomes in insulin-resistant males
Maria Apostolopoulou,Lucia Mastrototaro,Sonja Hartwig,Dominik Pesta,Klaus Straßburger,Elisabetta de Filippo,Tomas Jelenik,Yanislava Karusheva,Sofiya Gancheva,Daniel Markgraf,Christian Herder,K. Sreekumaran Nair,Andreas S. Reichert,Stefan Lehr,Karsten Müssig,Hadi Al-Hasani,Julia Szendroedi,Michael Roden
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48 Interaction Study of Different Forms of Human Recombinant Anti-Mullerian Hormone with a Chimeric Analogue of the AMH Type II Receptor
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49 Endoplasmic reticulum-unfolded protein response signalling is altered in severe eosinophilic and neutrophilic asthma
Prabuddha S Pathinayake, David W Waters, Kristy S Nichol, Alexandra C Brown, Andrew T Reid, Alan Chen-Yu Hsu, Jay C Horvat, Lisa G Wood, Katherine J Baines, Jodie L Simpson, Peter G Gibson, Philip M Hansbro, Peter A B Wark
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50 Antioxidative and Skin Protective Effects of Canarium subulatum Methanol Extract on Keratinocytes
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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2021; 2021: 1
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51 Nano-Curcumin Protects Against Sodium Nitrite–Induced Lung Hypoxia Through Modulation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase Signaling Pathway
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52 Integrative analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation and single-nucleotide polymorphism identified ACSM5 as a suppressor of lumbar ligamentum flavum hypertrophy
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Arthritis Research & Therapy. 2021; 23(1)
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53 Activation of PLCß1 enhances endocannabinoid mobilization to restore hippocampal spike-timing-dependent potentiation and contextual fear memory impaired by Alzheimer’s amyloidosis
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54 Umbilical mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles as enzyme delivery vehicle to treat Morquio A fibroblasts
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55 Involvement of the VEGF signaling pathway in immunosuppression and hypoxia stress: analysis of mRNA expression in lymphocytes mediating panting in Jersey cattle under heat stress
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56 Cell volume homeostatically controls the rDNA repeat copy number and rRNA synthesis rate in yeast
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58 The study of interaction of different forms of human recombinant anti-mullerian hormone with a chimeric analogue of the AMH type II
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59 Transmission mode of watermelon silver mottle virus by Thrips palmi
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60 Identification of a diguanylate cyclase expressed in the presence of plants and its application for discovering candidate gene products involved in plant colonization by Pantoea sp. YR343
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61 An Assessment of In-vitro and In-vivo Evaluation Methods for Theranostic Nanomaterials
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62 Effect of Berberine on Hyperuricemia and Kidney Injury: A Network Pharmacology Analysis and Experimental Validation in a Mouse Model
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63 Unraveling the Local Relation Between Tissue Composition and Human Brain Mechanics Through Machine Learning
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Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology. 2021; 9
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64 From Donor to the Lab: A Fascinating Journey of Primary Cell Lines
Magdalena Richter,Oliwia Piwocka,Marika Musielak,Igor Piotrowski,Wiktoria M. Suchorska,Tomasz Trzeciak
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology. 2021; 9
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65 Imperatorin Interferes with LPS Binding to the TLR4 Co-Receptor and Activates the Nrf2 Antioxidative Pathway in RAW264.7 Murine Macrophage Cells
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66 Chrysosplenol D Triggers Apoptosis through Heme Oxygenase-1 and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
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67 Beyond the Warburg Effect: Oxidative and Glycolytic Phenotypes Coexist within the Metabolic Heterogeneity of Glioblastoma
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68 Challenges with Methods for Detecting and Studying the Transcription Factor Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-?B) in the Central Nervous System
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69 A Preclinical Investigation of GBM-N019 as a Potential Inhibitor of Glioblastoma via Exosomal mTOR/CDK6/STAT3 Signaling
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70 Amelioration of Diabetic Nephropathy by Targeting Autophagy via Rapamycin or Fasting: Relation to Cell Apoptosis/Survival
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71 Wastewater-Based Epidemiology as an Early Warning System for the Spreading of SARS-CoV-2 and Its Mutations in the Population
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International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(11): 5629
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72 Sweet Basil Has Distinct Synthases for Eugenol Biosynthesis in Glandular Trichomes and Roots with Different Regulatory Mechanisms
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73 Enhanced Production of the Mical Redox Domain for Enzymology and F-actin Disassembly Assays
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74 Proteomics of Homeobox7 Enhanced Salt Tolerance in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum
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75 Novel NF?B Inhibitor SC75741 Mitigates Chondrocyte Degradation and Prevents Activated Fibroblast Transformation by Modulating miR-21/GDF-5/SOX5 Signaling
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76 Trimethylamine n-Oxide (TMAO) Modulates the Expression of Cardiovascular Disease-Related microRNAs and Their Targets
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77 Heat Treatment Improves UV Photoprotective Effects of Licorice in Human Dermal Fibroblasts
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78 Electrical Detection of Innate Immune Cells
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79 Design, Synthesis, In Vitro Anticancer Evaluation and Molecular Modelling Studies of 3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenyl-Based Derivatives as Dual EGFR/HDAC Hybrid Inhibitors
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80 The Level of Mesenchymal-Epithelial Transition Autophosphorylation is Correlated with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Migration
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81 Samnamul (Shoots of Aruncus dioicus) Inhibit Adipogenesis by Downregulating Adipocyte-Specific Transcription Factors in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes
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82 A Higher Frequency Administration of the Nontoxic Cycloartane-Type Triterpene Argentatin A Improved Its Anti-Tumor Activity
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83 Development of Epidermal Equivalent from Electrospun Synthetic Polymers for In Vitro Irritation/Corrosion Testing
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84 Measurement of the Emission Spectra of Protein Solutions in the Infrared Range. Description of the Method and Testing Using Solution of Human Interferon Gamma as an Example
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Frontiers in Physics. 2020; 8
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85 Azasteroid Alkylators as Dual Inhibitors of AKT and ERK Signaling for the Treatment of Ovarian Carcinoma
Panagiotis Dalezis,Eleni Geromichalou,Aikaterini Polonifi,Sofia Sagredou,Nikolaos Nikoleousakos,Michael Nikolaou,Vasiliki Sarli,Mihalis I. Panayiotidis,Dimitrios T. Trafalis
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86 Insertion of Basic Amino Acids in the Hemagglutinin Cleavage Site of H4N2 Avian Influenza Virus (AIV)—Reduced Virus Fitness in Chickens is Restored by Reassortment with Highly Pathogenic H5N1 AIV
Marcel Gischke,Reiner Ulrich,Olanrewaju I. Fatola,David Scheibner,Ahmed H. Salaheldin,Beate Crossley,Eva Böttcher-Friebertshäuser,Jutta Veits,Thomas C. Mettenleiter,Elsayed M. Abdelwhab
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87 Oxidative Stress-Induced DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Clove Buds-Treated MCF-7 Cells
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88 A Single Step in vitro Bioassay Mimicking TLR4-LPS Pathway and the Role of MD2 and CD14 Coreceptors
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89 Identifying Antioxidant Proteins by Using Amino Acid Composition and Protein-Protein Interactions
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Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology. 2020; 8
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90 Inhibitor of protein kinases 1-(4-chlorobenzyl)-3-chloro-4-(3-trifluoromethylphenylamino)-1?-pyrrole-2,5-dione induces DNA damage and apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells
N. S. Finiuk,O. Yu. Klyuchivska,H. M. Kuznietsova,S. P. Vashchuk,V. K. Rybalchenko,R. S. Stoika
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91

Upregulation of FTX Promotes Osteosarcoma Tumorigenesis by Increasing SOX4 Expression via miR-214-5p

Haicong Chen,Tianfeng Liu,Hanbin Ouyang,Sien Lin,Huan Zhong,Hongwu Zhang,Yang Yang
OncoTargets and Therapy. 2020; Volume 13: 7125
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92 A Radioactive-free Kinase Inhibitor Discovery Assay Against the Trypanosoma brucei Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 short (TbGSK-3s)
ANTONIA EFSTATHIOU,Despina Smirlis
BIO-PROTOCOL. 2020; 10(2)
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93 Cyanidin 3-O-Glucoside Induces the Apoptosis in the Osteosarcoma Cells through Upregulation of the PPAR? and P21: An In Vitro Study
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94 Preparation of polyclonal and monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies against morphine-specific immunoglobulins
A. V. Trofimov,V. A. Atanesyan,A. M. Ischenko,E. A. Karabanova,A. Ya. Rak,A. S. Simbirtsev,N. B. Gamaleya,A. G. Berzina,N. V. Stankova,G. D. Kapanadze,L. I. Ulyanova,T. A. Klimova
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95 Erigeron annuus Protects PC12 Neuronal Cells from Oxidative Stress Induced by ROS-Mediated Apoptosis
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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2020; 2020: 1
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96 Neuroprotection of Tropical Fruit Juice Mixture via the Reduction of iNOS Expression and CRH Level in ß-Amyloid-Induced Rats Model of Alzheimer’s Disease
Theng Choon Ooi,Munirah Ahmad Munawar,Nur Hasnieza Mohd Rosli,Siti Nur Aqilah Abdul Malek,Hanisah Rosli,Farah Wahida Ibrahim,Norazrina Azmi,Hasnah Haron,Razinah Sharif,Suzana Shahar,Nor Fadilah Rajab
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2020; 2020: 1
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97 Comparative Molecular Biology Approaches for the Production of Poliovirus Virus-Like Particles Using Pichia pastoris
Lee Sherry,Keith Grehan,Joseph S. Snowden,Michael L. Knight,Oluwapelumi O. Adeyemi,David J. Rowlands,Nicola J. Stonehouse,Urs F. Greber
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98 Influence of salinity on survival, growth, hemolymph osmolality, gill sodium potassium ATPase activity, and sodium potassium chloride co-transporter expression in the redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus
Reem Rida,Razan Zein-Eddine,Sawsan Kreydiyyeh,Antonio Garza de Yta,Imad Patrick Saoud
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. 2020;
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99 Exosomal miRNAs as circulating biomarkers for prediction of development of haematogenous metastasis after surgery for stage II/III gastric cancer
Xin Liu,Kent-Man Chu
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. 2020;
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100 Extracts of Moringa oleifera leaves from different cultivation regions show both antioxidant and antiobesity activities
Da-Song Kim,Moon-Hee Choi,Hyun-Jae Shin
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101 Deciphering key regulators involved in epilepsy-induced cardiac damage through whole transcriptome and proteome analysis in a rat model
Supriya Sharma,Meetal Sharma,Anil Kumar Rana,Robin Joshi,Mohit Kumar Swarnkar,Vishal Acharya,Damanpreet Singh
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102 Assessing the Immune Response When Raising Antibodies for Use in Xenopus
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103 A Review of Properties, Delivery Systems and Analytical Methods for the Characterization of Monomeric Glycoprotein Transferrin
Mariza Aires Fernandes,Gilmar Hanck-Silva,Franciele Garcia Baveloni,Joăo Augusto Oshiro Junior,Felipe Tita de Lima,Josimar O. Eloy,Marlus Chorilli
Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry. 2020; : 1
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104 Perillyl alcohol suppresses monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats via anti-remodeling, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects
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105 Antibody validation for Western blot: By the user, for the user
Lakshmi Pillai-Kastoori,Sam Heaton,Steve D. Shiflett,Annabelle C. Roberts,Alejandra Solache,Amy R. Schutz-Geschwender
Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2020; 295(4): 926
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106 Synthesis of Palladium(II) Complexes via Michael Addition: Antiproliferative Effects through ROS-Mediated Mitochondrial Apoptosis and Docking with SARS-CoV-2
Jebiti Haribabu,Swaminathan Srividya,Dharmasivam Mahendiran,Dasararaju Gayathri,Vemula Venkatramu,Nattamai Bhuvanesh,Ramasamy Karvembu
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107 Acceleration of somatic cell reprogramming into the induced pluripotent stem cell using a mycosporine-like amino acid, Porphyra 334
Junsang Yoo,Junyeop Kim,Jeong Hun Lee,Hyein Kim,Sung Joo Jang,Hyo Hyun Seo,Seung Taek Oh,Seung Jae Hyeon,Hoon Ryu,Jongpil Kim,Sang Hyun Moh
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108 Inhibiting Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Activation by Perturbing Protein–Protein Interactions Using a Cyclic Peptide
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109 Unraveling How Ethanol-Induced Conformational Changes Affect BSA Protein Adsorption onto Silica Surfaces
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110 Sandwich-Type Electrochemical Paper-Based Immunosensor for Claudin 7 and CD81 Dual Determination on Extracellular Vesicles from Breast Cancer Patients
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111 Liver Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase-1 Downregulation via siRNA-Functionalized Graphene Oxide Nanosheets Restores Glucose Homeostasis in a Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In Vivo Model
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112 Antibody validation for Western blot: By the user, for the user
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113 A capillary electrophoresis based approach for the identification of anti-drug antibodies against camelid VHH biologics (Nanobodies®)
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114 Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors improve angiogenic function of endothelial progenitor cells via ERK/p38-mediated miR-126 upregulation in myocardial infarction mice after exercise
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Experimental Cell Research. 2020; 397(2): 112360
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115 Cloning and expression of OdTx12, a ß excitatory toxin from Odontobuthus doriae, in Escherichia coli and evaluation of its bioactivity in Locusta migratoria
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116 An amplification strategy for detecting HER2 with a quasi-targeted proteomics approach coupled with aptamer-triggered hybridization chain reaction
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117 Review: Detection and quantification of proteins in human urine
Sultan Aitekenov,Abduzhappar Gaipov,Rostislav Bukasov
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118 Harvesting, processing, and evaluation of in vitro-manipulated equine preantral follicles: A review
E.L. Gastal,F.L.N. Aguiar,G.D.A. Gastal,K.A. Alves,B.G. Alves,J.R. Figueiredo
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119 Impact of in ovo administered pioneer colonizers on intestinal proteome on day of hatch
K.M. Wilson,D.R. Rodrigues,W.N. Briggs,A.F. Duff,K.M. Chasser,W.G. Bottje,L.R. Bielke
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120 The Mediation of Pigeon Egg Production by Regulating the Steroid Hormone Biosynthesis of Pigeon Ovarian Granulosa Cells
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121 Bioinspired 3D porous human placental derived extracellular matrix/silk fibroin sponges for accelerated bone regeneration
Arun Prabhu Rameshbabu,Kamakshi Bankoti,Sayanti Datta,Elavarasan Subramani,Anupam Apoorva,Paulomi Ghosh,Subhodeep Jana,Padmavati Manchikanti,Sabyasachi Roy,Koel Chaudhury,Santanu Dhara
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122 Production of pharmaceutical active recombinant globular adiponectin as a secretory protein in Withania Somnifera hairy root culture
Sayed Mehdi Dehdashti,Sumita Acharjee,Alireza Nomani,Manab Deka
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123 Delayed effects of sulfur mustard on autophagy suppression in chemically-injured lung tissue
Marzieh Eghtedardoost,Tooba Ghazanfari,Alireza Sadeghipour,Zuhair Mohammad Hassan,Mostafa Ghanei,Saeid Ghavami
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124 Identification and sub-cellular localization of a NAD transporter in Leishmania braziliensis (LbNDT1)
David S. Morales Herrera,Luis E. Contreras Rodríguez,Claudia C. Rubiano Castellanos,Maria H. Ramírez Hernández
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125 PXR is a target of (-)-epicatechin in skeletal muscle
Miguel Ortiz-Flores,Andrés Portilla-Martínez,Francisco Cabrera-Pérez,Nayelli Nájera,Eduardo Meaney,Francisco Villarreal,Javier Pérez-Durán,Guillermo Ceballos
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126 TCR-like domain antibody against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) heat shock protein antigen presented by HLA-A*11 and HLA-A*24
Sylvia Annabel Dass,Mohd Nor Norazmi,Armando Acosta,Maria E. Sarmiento,Gee Jun Tye
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2020; 155: 305
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127 Ligand- and structural-based discovery of potential small molecules that target the colchicine site of tubulin for cancer treatment
Qingqing Guo,Huimin Zhang,Yanhong Deng,Shiyang Zhai,Zhenla Jiang,Daqian Zhu,Ling Wang
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2020; 196: 112328
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128 Effect of mobile phone signal radiation on epigenetic modulation in the hippocampus of Wistar rat
Ranjeet Kumar,Pravin S. Deshmukh,Sonal Sharma,Basu Dev Banerjee
Environmental Research. 2020; : 110297
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129 The functional differentiation of four smad4 paralogs in TGF-ß signaling pathway of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)
Haiyang Yu,Yujue Wang,Chaofan Jin,Yuxiang Liu,Yan He,Quanqi Zhang
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130 Antibody stability: A key to performance - Analysis, influences and improvement
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131 Toona sinensis modulates autophagy and cytokines in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages
Chun-En Aurea Kuo,Szu-Ying Wu,Chen-Hsiang Lee,Yun-Ru Lai,Cheng-Hsien Lu,Po-Cheng Chen,Jai-Hong Cheng,Li-Yu Tsai,Ke-Tien Yen,Yu Tsao,Shih-Meng Tsai
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132 Low dose HSP90 inhibition with AUY922 blunts rapid evolution of metastatic and drug resistant phenotypes induced by TGF-ß and paclitaxel in A549 cells
Nickolas A. Bacon,Isabel Larre,Abdalla A. Lawag,Carlen Merritt,Mackinzie Smith,Matthew Rosolen,Vincent E. Sollars
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133 Low METTL3 level in midgut of the Bombyx mori inhibit the proliferation of nucleopolyhedrovirus
Peng Xue,Tao Jiang,Juan Zhu,Meixian Wang,Qiaoling Zhao,Jinshan Huang,Shunming Tang,Xingjia Shen
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134 Improvement of immunodetection of the transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein by western blot
Jonathan Turpin,Etienne Frumence,Daed El Safadi,Olivier Meilhac,Pascale Krejbich-Trotot,Wildriss Viranaďcken
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135 Molecular characterization of Antheraea mylitta arylphorin gene and its encoded protein
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136 Scaffolds with controlled release of pro-mineralization exosomes to promote craniofacial bone healing without cell transplantation
W. Benton Swanson,Zhen Zhang,Kemao Xiu,Ting Gong,Miranda Eberle,Ziqi Wang,Peter X. Ma
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137 Impact of liraglutide on microcirculation in experimental diabetic cardiomyopathy
Nehad Gamal Abdelrazik Soliman,Ahmed A.M. Abdel-Hamid,Amany A. El-Hawwary,Amany Ellakkany
Acta Histochemica. 2020; 122(3): 151533
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138 Halodule pinifolia (Seagrass) attenuated lipopolysaccharide-, carrageenan-, and crystal-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines: mechanism and chemistry
Sajeli Ahil Begum,Kirti Hira,Pragya Paramita Pal,Samrun Nessa,Onkar P. Kulkarni,Jeyapragash Danaraj,Ameer Basha Shaik,Hiroshi Araya,Yoshinori Fujimoto
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139 Pachymic acid protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway
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140 (-)-Epicatechin reduces muscle waste after complete spinal cord transection in a murine model: role of ubiquitin–proteasome system
Cristian Gonzalez-Ruiz,Paola Cordero-Anguiano,Axayacatl Morales-Guadarrama,Rodrigo Mondragón-Lozano,Stephanie Sánchez-Torres,Hermelinda Salgado-Ceballos,Francisco Villarreal,Eduardo Meaney,Guillermo Ceballos,Nayelli Nájera
Molecular Biology Reports. 2020;
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141 Identifying adaptive alleles in the human genome: from selection mapping to functional validation
Elizabeth A. Werren,Obed Garcia,Abigail W. Bigham
Human Genetics. 2020;
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142 Triclosan induces zebrafish neurotoxicity by abnormal expression of miR-219 targeting oligodendrocyte differentiation of central nervous system
Yuhang Ling,Limei Sun,Danting Wang,Jiahui Jiang,Wenjing Sun,Weiming Ai,Xuedong Wang,Huili Wang
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143 Combinatorial ethanol treatment increases the overall productivity of recombinant hG-CSF in E. coli: a comparative study
Balaram Mishra,Giridharan Murthy,Bijayalaxmi Sahoo,Sang Jun Uhm,Mukesh Kumar Gupta
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144 Phenolic metabolism in the hornwort Anthoceros agrestis: 4-coumarate CoA ligase and 4-hydroxybenzoate CoA ligase
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145 Neuroprotective efficacy of nano-CoQ against propionic acid toxicity in rats: Role of BDNF and CREB protein expressions
Ahlam Alhusaini,Iman H. Hasan,Bashayer Alrumayyan,Marwa Alesikri,Khansa Alanazi,Rawan Almasoud,Sarah Almarshad
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146 Identification and characterization of a novel isoform of heparin cofactor II in human liver
Shadabi Bano,Sana Fatima,Shahzaib Ahamad,Shoyab Ansari,Dinesh Gupta,Mohammad Tabish,Sayeed ur Rehman,Mohamad Aman Jairajpuri
IUBMB Life. 2020;
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147 Questioning coverage values determined by 2D western blots: A critical study on the characterization of anti-HCP ELISA reagents
Christina Seisenberger,Tobias Graf,Markus Haindl,Harald Wegele,Michael Wiedmann,Stefanie Wohlrab
Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 2020;
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148 Purification of human recombinant anti-mullerian hormone and its derivatives
Alexandra Ya. Rak,Alexander V. Trofimov,Natalia V. Pigareva,Eugeny A. Protasov,Elena A. Karabanova,Alexander M. Ischenko
Biomedical Chromatography. 2020;
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149 Proteomic Detection and Validation of Translated Small Open Reading Frames
Alexandra Khitun,Sarah A. Slavoff
Current Protocols in Chemical Biology. 2019; 11(4)
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150 G Protein–Coupled Estrogen Receptor Production Using an Escherichia coli Cell-Free Expression System
Samson A. Souza,Dane T. Kurohara,Chester L. Dabalos,Ho Leung Ng
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151 Functional characterization of host toxic EcdB transcription factor protein of echinocandin B biosynthetic gene cluster
Arvind Kumar,Vinay Kumar,Antresh Kumar
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry. 2019; 66(4): 626
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152 A novel LAMP2 p.G93R mutation associated with mild Danon disease presenting with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Jing Xu,Lu Wang,Xiangdong Liu,Qiming Dai
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153 Evaluation of Renin and Soluble (Pro)renin Receptor in Patients with IPF. A Comparison with Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis
Montes Eduardo,Buendía-Roldan Ivette,Díaz-Pińa Gabriela,Moreno-Avila Veronica,Ruiz Victor
Lung. 2019;
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154 Aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling, toxicity, and gene expression responses to mono-methylchrysenes
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Environmental Toxicology. 2019;
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155 Protective effects of Belamcandae Rhizoma against skin damage by ameliorating ultraviolet-B-induced apoptosis and collagen degradation in keratinocytes
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Environmental Toxicology. 2019;
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156 Human skin-derived ABCB5+ stem cell injection improves liver disease parameters in Mdr2KO mice
Vanessa Hartwig,Bedair Dewidar,Tao Lin,Anne Dropmann,Christoph Ganss,Mark Andreas Kluth,Nils Tappenbeck,Lysann Tietze,Bruno Christ,Markus Frank,Roger Vogelmann,Matthias Philip Alexander Ebert,Steven Dooley
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157 A flexible, robust microbead-based assay for quantification and normalization of target protein concentrations
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158 FGF-2 signaling activation in the hippocampus contributes to the behavioral and cellular responses to puerarin
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159 Gene isolation, heterologous expression, purification and functional confirmation of sesamin synthase from Sesamum indicum L.
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160 Cardiac glycoside Cerberin exerts anticancer activity through PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal transduction inhibition
Md Shahadat Hossan,Zi-Yang Chan,Hilary M. Collins,Fiona N. Shipton,Mark S. Butler,Mohammed Rahmatullah,Jong Bong Lee,Pavel Gershkovich,Leonid Kagan,Teng-Jin Khoo,Christophe Wiart,Tracey D. Bradshaw
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161 Anti-proliferative and cytotoxic activities of the flavonoid isoliquiritigenin in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y
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162 Inhibitors of Aß42-induced endoplasmic reticular unfolded protein response (UPRER), in yeast, also rescue yeast cells from Aß42-mediated apoptosis
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European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2019; 128: 118
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163 CYP enzymes, expressed within live human suspension cells, are superior to widely-used microsomal enzymes in identifying potent CYP1A1/CYP1B1 inhibitors: Identification of quinazolinones as CYP1A1/CYP1B1 inhibitors that efficiently reverse B[a]P toxicity and cisplatin resistance
Vinay R. Sonawane,Mohd Usman Mohd Siddique,Linda Gatchie,Ibidapo S. Williams,Sandip B. Bharate,Venkatesan Jayaprakash,Barij N. Sinha,Bhabatosh Chaudhuri
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164 Genetic and epigenetic alterations induced by the small-molecule panobinostat: A mechanistic study at the chromosome and gene levels
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165 An alternative pathway for the formation of aromatic aroma compounds derived from l -phenylalanine via phenylpyruvic acid in tea ( Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) leaves
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Food Chemistry. 2019; 270: 17
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166 Activation of TGR5 with INT-777 attenuates oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis via cAMP/PKCe/ALDH2 pathway after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats
Gang Zuo,Tongyu Zhang,Lei Huang,Camila Araujo,Jun Peng,Zachary Travis,Takeshi Okada,Umut Ocak,Guangyu Zhang,Jiping Tang,Xiaojun Lu,John H. Zhang
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167 Oral administration of 3,3'-diselenodipropionic acid prevents thoracic radiation induced pneumonitis in mice by suppressing NF-kB/IL-17/G-CSF/neutrophil axis
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168 Albumin fusion improves the pharmacokinetics and in vivo antitumor efficacy of canine interferon gamma
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169 GlSir2.1 of Giardia lamblia is a NAD+-dependent cytoplasmic deacetylase
Edian A. Herrera T.,Luis E. Contreras,Aravy G. Suárez,Gonzalo J. Diaz,María. H. Ramírez
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170 Gene mining and identification of a flavone synthase II involved in flavones biosynthesis by transcriptomic analysis and targeted flavonoid profiling in Chrysanthemum indicum L.
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171 In-silico and in-vitro analysis of endocan interaction with statins
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172 Dietary N-Carbamylglutamate (NCG) alleviates liver metabolic disease and hepatocyte apoptosis by suppressing ERK1/2-mTOR-S6K1 signal pathway via promoting endogenous arginine synthesis in Japanese seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus)
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173 a-Enolase as a novel vaccine candidate against Streptococcus dysgalactiae infection in cobia (Rachycentron canadum L.)
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174 Lipid metabolism disorders contribute to hepatotoxicity of triclosan in mice
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175 Protein biomarkers of neural system
Fatemeh Ghanavatinejad,Zahra Pourteymour Fard Tabrizi,Shadi Omidghaemi,Esmaeel Sharifi,Simon Geir Mřller,Mohammad-Saeid Jami
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176 Anti-diabetic properties of different fractions of Korean red ginseng
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177 Cholesterol transporter proteins in HepG2 cells can be modulated by phenolic compounds present in Opuntia ficus-indica aqueous solutions
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178 Antigen retrieval by citrate solution improves western blot signal
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179 The Reference Genome Sequence of Scutellaria baicalensis Provides Insights into the Evolution of Wogonin Biosynthesis
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180 Effects of Angiotensin III on c-Jun N terminal Kinase in Wistar and Hypertensive Rat Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells
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181 Mitigation of Acetamiprid – Induced Renotoxicity by Natural Antioxidants via the Regulation of ICAM, NF-kB and TLR 4 pathways
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182 Open source automated western blot processor
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183 Slower development of PSI activity limits photosynthesis during Euonymus japonicus leaf development
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184 Targeted quantitative proteomic analysis of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters by nano LC-MS/MS in the sandwich cultured human hepatocyte model
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185 AVE 0991 attenuates oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis via Mas/PKA/CREB/UCP-2 pathway after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats
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186 miR-133b suppresses colorectal cancer cell stemness and chemoresistance by targeting methyltransferase DOT1L
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187 Platelet Factor 4 as a Novel Exosome Marker in MALDI-MS Analysis of Exosomes from Human Serum
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188 Quantification of ERK Kinase Activity in Biological Samples Using Differential Sensing
Diana Zamora-Olivares,Tamer S. Kaoud,Lingyu Zeng,Jacey R. Pridgen,Deborah L. Zhuang,Yakndara E. Ekpo,Jessica R. Nye,Mitchell Telles,Eric V. Anslyn,Kevin N. Dalby
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189 Functional neutralization of anti-IFN-? autoantibody in patients with nontuberculous mycobacteria infection
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190 Analyzing bacterial extracellular vesicles in human body fluids by orthogonal biophysical separation and biochemical characterization
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191 A new triple chimeric protein as a high immunogenic antigen against anthrax toxins: theoretical and experimental analyses
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192 A tight cold-inducible switch built by coupling thermosensitive transcriptional and proteolytic regulatory parts
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193 EspA-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles can efficiently protect animal model against enterohaemorrhagic E. coli O157: H7
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194 Glycine Protects against Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury by Regulating Mitochondria-Mediated Autophagy via the AMPK Pathway
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195 Diagnostic potential of saliva proteome analysis: a review and guide to clinical practice
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196 Comparative analysis of homologous aminopeptidase PepN from pathogenic and non-pathogenic mycobacteria reveals divergent traits
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197 Aspalathin, a natural product with the potential to reverse hepatic insulin resistance by improving energy metabolism and mitochondrial respiration
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198 The role of NF-?B and Elk-1 in the regulation of mouse ADAM17 expression
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199 Biomarkers of Multiple Sclerosis
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200 Knockdown of TIGAR Induces Apoptosis and Autophagy with Modulates NF-?B and HO-1 Expression in A549 Lung Cancer Cells
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201 Western Blotting and Flow Cytometry for Evaluating Necroptosis of Cells (Review)
A. S. Tkachenko,A. I. Onishchenko,V. G. Gopkalov,T. V. Gorbach,E. A. Kharchenko,D. O. Sklyaruk
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202 Primary Membranous Glomerulonephritis: The Role of Serum and Urine Biomarkers in Patient Management
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Biomedicines. 2019; 7(4): 86
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203 Aspalathin-Enriched Green Rooibos Extract Reduces Hepatic Insulin Resistance by Modulating PI3K/AKT and AMPK Pathways
Sithandiwe Mazibuko-Mbeje,Phiwayinkosi Dludla,Candice Roux,Rabia Johnson,Samira Ghoor,Elizabeth Joubert,Johan Louw,Andy Opoku,Christo Muller
International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(3): 633
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204 Gypenoside LXXV Promotes Cutaneous Wound Healing In Vivo by Enhancing Connective Tissue Growth Factor Levels Via the Glucocorticoid Receptor Pathway
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205 Complementarity of Matrix- and Nanostructure-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Approaches
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206 Preclinical Evidence of STAT3 Inhibitor Pacritinib Overcoming Temozolomide Resistance via Downregulating miR-21-Enriched Exosomes from M2 Glioblastoma-Associated Macrophages
Hao-Yu Chuang,Yu-kai Su,Heng-Wei Liu,Chao-Hsuan Chen,Shao-Chih Chiu,Der-Yang Cho,Shinn-Zong Lin,Yueh-Sheng Chen,Chien-Min Lin
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207 Polydopamine/Transferrin Hybrid Nanoparticles for Targeted Cell-Killing
Daniel Hauser,Manuela Estermann,Ana Milosevic,Lukas Steinmetz,Dimitri Vanhecke,Dedy Septiadi,Barbara Drasler,Alke Petri-Fink,Vincent Ball,Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser
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208 Assessment of TSPO in a Rat Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis Model: A Comparison Study between [18F]Fluoromethyl-PBR28 and [18F]CB251
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209 Oxidative Stress-Protective and Anti-Melanogenic Effects of Loliolide and Ethanol Extract from Fresh Water Green Algae, Prasiola japonica
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International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(9): 2825
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210 Impact of Mutations in the Hemagglutinin of H10N7 Viruses Isolated from Seals on Virus Replication in Avian and Human Cells
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211 Silencing of uPAR via RNA interference inhibits invasion and migration of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma
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212 Analytical techniques for characterization of biological molecules – proteins and aptamers/oligonucleotides
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213 ??????????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????, "?????????"
?. ?. ???,?.?. ????????,?. ?. ????????,?.?. ?????????,?.?. ??????
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214 Cell-Based Methods for Determination of Efficacy for Candidate Therapeutics in the Clinical Management of Cancer
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Diseases. 2018; 6(4): 85
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215 How to make P-glycoprotein (ABCB1, MDR1) harbor mutations and measure its expression and activity in cell cultures?
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Pharmacogenomics. 2018;
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216 Padlock Probe Assay for Detection and Subtyping of Seasonal Influenza
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217 Cystatin A suppresses tumor cell growth through inhibiting epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human lung cancer
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218 Cryoablation inhibition of distant untreated tumors (abscopal effect) is immune mediated
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219 High SMAD7 and p-SMAD2,3 expression is associated with environmental enteropathy in children
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220 Zinc stimulates glucose oxidation and glycemic control by modulating the insulin signaling pathway in human and mouse skeletal muscle cell lines
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221 The eNOS-NO pathway attenuates kidney dysfunction via suppression of inflammasome activation in aldosterone-induced renal injury model mice
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222 Sensitivity and specificity of recombinant proteins in Toxocara spp. for serodiagnosis in humans: Differences in adult and child populations
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223 Immunoexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor and B-cell lymphoma 2 in the uterine tissue of rats treated with melatonin in the estrus phase
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224 Memeli Tümör ve Normal Hücre Hatlarinda Nanopartikül Uygulamalari
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225 Comparison of iTRAQ and SWATH in a clinical study with multiple time points
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Clinical Proteomics. 2018; 15(1)
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226 Nitroso-Oxidative Stress, Acute Phase Response, and Cytogenetic Damage in Wistar Rats Treated with Adrenaline
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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2018; 2018: 1
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227 Leptin Modifies the Rat Heart Performance Associated with Mitochondrial Dysfunction Independently of Its Prohypertrophic Effects
Edna Berzabá-Evoli,Cecilia Zazueta,Jarumi Hishel Cruz Hernández,Nancy Patricia Gómez-Crisóstomo,Isela Esther Juárez-Rojop,Erick Natividad De la Cruz-Hernández,Eduardo Martínez-Abundis
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228 Evaluation methods as quality control in the generation of decellularized peripheral nerve allografts
Charlot Philips,Maria Cornelissen,Víctor Carriel
Journal of Neural Engineering. 2018; 15(2): 021003
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229 Microchannel device for proteomic analysis of migrating cancer cells
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230 Effect of TAK1 on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells by regulating BMP-2 via Wnt/ß-catenin and MAPK pathway
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231 An ice-binding and tandem beta-sandwich domain-containing protein in Shewanella frigidimarina is a potential new type of ice adhesin
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232 A Proteomics and other Omics approach in the context of farmed fish welfare and biomarker discovery
Cláudia Sofia Ferreira Raposo de Magalhăes,Marco Alexandre Cavaco Cerqueira,Denise Schrama,Márcio Júlio Vicente Moreira,Surintorn Boonanuntanasarn,Pedro Miguel Leal Rodrigues
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233 Involvement of a Nonstructural Protein in Poliovirus Capsid Assembly
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234 Plasmonic biosensor based on vertical arrays of gold nanoantennas
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235 A non-canonical GTPase interaction enables ORP1L-Rab7-RILP complex formation and late endosome positioning
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236 Analysis for Science Librarians of the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine: The Life and Work of Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael W. Young
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237 Chemi- and Bioluminescence of Cyclic Peroxides
Morgane Vacher,Ignacio Fdez. Galván,Bo-Wen Ding,Stefan Schramm,Romain Berraud-Pache,Pance Naumov,Nicolas Ferré,Ya-Jun Liu,Isabelle Navizet,Daniel Roca-Sanjuán,Wilhelm J. Baader,Roland Lindh
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238 Highly Sensitive and Multiplexed Protein Measurements
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239 Comparison of untagged and his-tagged dihydrodipicolinate synthase from the enteric pathogen Vibrio cholerae
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240 Photodynamic inactivation of bacteriophage MS2: The A-protein is the target of virus inactivation
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241 Expression, activation and processing of a novel plant milk-clotting aspartic protease in Pichia pastoris
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242 Identification of protective protein antigens for vaccination against Streptococcus dysgalactiae in cobia ( Rachycentron canadum )
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243 Differential antiviral activity of European sea bass interferon-stimulated 15 protein (ISG15) against RGNNV and SJNNV betanodaviruses
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244 Role of Dehydrin-FK506-binding proteins complex in enhancing drought tolerance through ABA-mediated signaling pathway
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245 Divergent changes in the content and activity of MMP-26 and TIMP-4 in human umbilical cord tissues associated with preeclampsia
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246 5-Methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (MICA) suppresses Aß-mediated pathology in C. elegans
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247 Ameliorative role of ferulic acid against diabetes associated oxidative stress induced spleen damage
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248 The role of posttranslational modifications of a-synuclein and LRRK2 in Parkinsonćs disease: Potential contributions of environmental factors
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249 A Case of Concomitant Pemphigus Foliaceus and Oral Pemphigus Vulgaris
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250 Early Diagnosis of Disease Using Microbead Array Technology: A Review
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251 MARCKS Is Necessary for Netrin-DCC Signaling and Corpus Callosum Formation
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252 The protective mechanism of Nigella sativa against diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma through its antioxidant effect and EGFR/ERK1/2 signaling
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253 The novel protective effects of loganin against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced neurotoxicity: Enhancement of neurotrophic signaling, activation of IGF-1R/GLP-1R , and inhibition of RhoA/ROCK pathway
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254 Effects of biphasic and monophasic electrical stimulation on mitochondrial dynamics, cell apoptosis, and cell proliferation
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255 Identification of a novel member of the pH responsive pathway Pal/Rim in Ustilago maydis
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256 Evaluation of the renoprotective effect of nano turmeric against toxic dose of copper sulfate: Role of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, kidney injury molecule-1, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 protein expressions
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257 Combining Cytotoxicity Assessment and Xenopus laevis Phenotypic Abnormality Assay as a Predictor of Nanomaterial Safety
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258 Quantitative proteome-based systematic identification of SIRT7 substrates
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259 Using SDS-PAGE gel fingerprinting to identify soft-bodied wood-boring insect larvae to species
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260 Autophagy enhancement is rendered ineffective in presence of a-synuclein in melanoma cells
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261 Immunomodulatory and therapeutic role of Cinnamomum verum extracts in collagen-induced arthritic BALB/c mice
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262 Inhibition of heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 potentiates the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of 2-(4'fluoro-phenylamino)-4H-1,3-thiazine[6,5-b]indole in A2780cis cells
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263 Altered functional efficacy of hippocampal interneuron during epileptogenesis following febrile seizures
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264 TNF-a exerts cytotoxic effects on multidrug resistant breast cancer MCF-7/MX cells via a non-apoptotic death pathway
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265 Human Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) deacetylates histone H3 lysine 56 to promote Nonhomologous end joining repair
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266 Intracranial self-stimulation and immobilization had different effects on neurite extension and the p38 MAPK pathway in PC12m3 cells
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267 Silencing of the pentose phosphate pathway genes influences DNA replication in human fibroblasts
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268 Hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory effects of Psacalium paucicapitatum corms infusions
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269 Expression of Aspergillus Niger N5-5 in E. coli and Purification and Identification of Products
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270 The ENU-3 protein family members function in the Wnt pathway parallel to UNC-6/Netrin to promote motor neuron axon outgrowth in C. elegans
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271 High concentration of trichlorfon (1mM) disrupts axonal cytoskeleton and decreases the expression of plasticity-related proteins in SH-SY5Y cells
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272 Hexacosanol reduces plasma and hepatic cholesterol by activation of AMP-activated protein kinase and suppression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 in HepG2 and C57BL/6J mice
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273 Protective Effects of ?-Mangostin on 6-OHDA-Induced Toxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells
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274 Evaluation of vascular tone and cardiac contractility in response to silver nanoparticles, using Langendorff rat heart preparation
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275 Fruit Peel Polyphenolic Extract-Induced Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells Is Associated with ROS Production and Modulation of p38MAPK/Erk1/2 and the Akt Signaling Pathway
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276 Telmisartan Activates PPARd to Improve Symptoms of Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress-Induced Depression in Mice
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277 DNA polymerase beta participates in DNA End-joining
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278 5-hydroxytryptamine1A receptor density in the hippocampus of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy is associated with disease duration
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279 Deoxycholic acid promotes development of gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrettćs oesophagus by modulating integrin-av trafficking
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280 L- and T-type calcium channel blockers protect against the inhibitory effects of mipafox on neurite outgrowth and plasticity-related proteins in SH-SY5Y cells
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281 Cigarette smokers develop altered erythrocyte membrane composition: an investigation unmasking the role of membrane bound integral protein GLUT 1
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282 Proteomics and irritable bowel syndrome
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