Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
Visit old site
Home Print this page Email this page Small font size Default font size Increase font size
Users Online: 452

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 11  |  Page : 573-576

Staphylococcus aureus in acne pathogenesis: A case-control study

1 Department of Nosocomial Infection Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
2 Department of Infectious Diseases Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
3 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
4 Department of Skin Diseases, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
5 Department of Microbiology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

Date of Web Publication9-Nov-2012

Correspondence Address:
Fatemeh Abdi
Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, HezarJerib Avenue, Isfahan
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1947-2714.103317

Rights and Permissions

Background : There is considerable evidence which suggests a possible pathogenetic role for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in acne vulgaris. Aim : The study was to determine S. aureus colonization and antibiotic susceptibility patterns in patients with acne and of healthy people. Materials and Methods : In the case-control study, a total of 324 people were screened for nasal carriage of S. aureus: 166 acne patients and 158 healthy persons. One control subject was individually matched to one case. Nasal swabs from anterior nares of individuals were cultured and identified as S. aureus. Antibiotic sensitivity was performed with recognized laboratory techniques. Results: S. aureus was detected in 21.7% of the subjects in acne, and in 26.6% of control groups. There was no statistical difference in colonization rates between two groups (P=0.3). In patient group, most of S. aureus isolates were resistant to doxicycline and tetracycline (P=0.001), and were more sensitive to rifampicin compared to other drugs. In control samples, the isolated demonstrated higher resistance to cotrimoxazole compared to patient samples (P=0.0001). There was no difference between groups regarding resistance to rifampicin, vancomycin, methicillin, and oxacillin. Conclusion: It is still unclear whether S. aureus is actually a causal agent in the pathogenesis of acne. Based on microbiological data of both healthy and acne-affected persons, we propose that contribution of S. aureus in acne pathogenesis is controversial.

Keywords: Acne, Antibiotic resistance, S. aureus

How to cite this article:
Khorvash F, Abdi F, Kashani HH, Naeini FF, Narimani T. Staphylococcus aureus in acne pathogenesis: A case-control study. North Am J Med Sci 2012;4:573-6

How to cite this URL:
Khorvash F, Abdi F, Kashani HH, Naeini FF, Narimani T. Staphylococcus aureus in acne pathogenesis: A case-control study. North Am J Med Sci [serial online] 2012 [cited 2023 Mar 21];4:573-6. Available from: https://www.najms.org/text.asp?2012/4/11/573/103317

  Introduction Top

Acne vulgaris is the most common disorder of human skin that affects up to 80% of adolescents and young adults in their lives. [1] Several studies suggest that the emotional impact of acne is comparable with disabling diseases, such as diabetes and epilepsy. [2] The social and psychological impacts of acne are sometimes so complicated that they cause serious problems in patients' self-esteem and socialization. [3] In conjunction with the considerable personal burden, it also accounts for substantial health care burden. [2] The development of acne is a multifactorial process involving both endogenous and exogenous factors, [4] including excessive sebum secretion, ductal hypercornification, and changes in the microbial flora especially colonization with  Propionibacterium acnes Scientific Name Search sup>[5] Antibiotic therapy has been integral to the management of acne for many years. The widespread use of antibiotics has unfortunately led to the emergence of resistant bacteria. [6] In addition, changing patterns of antibiotic sensitivity and the emergence of more virulent pathogens, such as community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), have led to marked changes in how clinicians use antibiotics in clinical practice. [7]

There is significant in vitro evidence suggesting a possible pathogenetic role for S. aureus in acne vulgaris. This is in contrast to some studies which implicated both S. epidermidis and P. acnes as bacteria-causing acne vulgaris. [5] S. aureus is the most common nosocomial pathogen, [8] with mortality rates ranging from 6% to 40 %. [9] It is a pathogen of more concern because of its ability to cause a various array of life-threatening infections and its capacity to adapt fast to the different environmental conditions. [10] The organism is normally present in the nasal vestibule of about 35% of apparently healthy individuals. [11] One cross-sectional study of patients who were undergoing evaluation for acne, showed that 43% participants were colonized with S. aureus. [12]

Considering to development of a resistance in microorganisms causing acne to antibiotics and the differences in species and strains of the microorganisms in different areas, this study was undertaken to delineate the frequency of S. aureus colonization among patients with acne and to clarify the antibiotic susceptibility patterns in patients suffering from acne and healthy individuals.

  Materials and Methods Top

This case-control study was conducted during 6 months from March to August 2009, in university hospitals in Isfahan, Iran. Ethical approval was taken from the ethical committee of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Written informed consent was obtained from the participants. Subjects in the case group were 166 acne patients referred to clinic of dermatology, between 18 and 30 years. The control subjects were 158 people with no acne, coming for a dermatologic consultation except for acne and none of them were not on any treatment for acne in last medical history. The study samples were consecutively selected from the case and control groups. Control participants were matching in sex, age, and ward location with the acne patients. The participants in both cohorts were not on any antibiotic for at least 6 weeks, and none of them had nasal abnormalities and chronic diseases. Patients were examined for the presence of acne by a dermatologist according to Global Acne Grading System (GAGS). Score of 1-18 was considered as mild acne, 19-30 as moderate, 31-38 as severe, and above 39 as very severe. [13] Exclusion criteria for the patient group were as follows: other skin diseases associated with acne, treatment with immunosuppressive agents, and diagnosed psychiatric disease.

At the end, a total of 324 volunteers were enrolled in a cohort, and screened for nasal carriage of S. aureus. The nasal specimens from anterior nares of the individuals were collected using labeled sterile cotton wool swabs. All swabs were obtained by one of the two investigators with use of a standard method and were taken to the laboratory within 2 hours of collection. Each of all the swab samples was inoculated directly onto sterilized blood agar plate and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. The isolates were identified as S. aureus based on colony morphology, Gram stain, catalase test, coagulase test, DNase test, and mannitol salt agar fermentation.

Susceptibility to antibiotics was assessed by the disc diffusion method, as recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), formerly National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. [14] The panel of antibiotic used in sensitivity tests included the following: oxacillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, doxicycline, clindamycin, rifampicin, cotrimoxasole, methicillin, and vancomycin. The susceptibility was performed on Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA). The strain's suspension was matched with 0.5 McFarland standards to give a resultant concentration of 1.5 × 10 8 CFU/mL (colony-forming unit per milliliter).


Data gathered were analyzed using Chi-Square and Mann-Whitney tests and through Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 15.0 with considering P value of <0.05 as statistically significant.

  Results Top

We carried out a matched case control study. Cases and controls were recruited from university hospitals in Isfahan, Iran. Since the study based on voluntary participation, it was completed with 166 participants in patient group and 158 participants in control group. The mean ages of the subjects were 22 ± 3.8 years and 24 ± 3.2 years in patient and unaffected groups (P=0.43). Based on acne severity classification, severe acne had the highest frequency in the patient group.

A total of 76 of the 324 participants (23%) were colonized with S. aureus. It was detected in 36 (21.7%) of the subjects in the acne group and in 42 (26.6%) of the control group [Table 1]. There was no statistical difference in S. aureus colonization rates between acne patients and healthy controls (OR 0.8; 95% CI, 0.6-1.1; P = 0.3).
Table 1. Antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from volunteers in the two groups

Click here to view

The sensitivity of S. aureus isolates to the tested antibiotics is shown in [Table 1]. In the patient group, most of S. aureus isolates were resistant to doxycycline and tetracycline (72% and 69%) (P = 0.001), and were more sensitive to rifampicin compared to other drugs (89%). In control samples, the isolated demonstrated higher resistance to cotrimoxazole compared to patient samples (P= 0.0001). There was no difference between two groups regarding resistance to rifampicin, vancomycin, methicillin, and oxacillin (P> 0.05).

  Discussion Top

Acne is a multifactorial disease of as yet incompletely elucidated etiology and pathogenesis. [15] A microbial etiology of acne has been suggested since the beginning of the last century. [16] Elucidating the ambiguous determinants of this phenomenon is of major public health interest. As a first step towards understanding the microbial etiology of acne, we have assessed S. aureus colonization and antibiotic resistance in acne patients.

The results of the present study showed an overall prevalence of 21.7% of S. aureus in acne patients and 26.6% in healthy persons. Carrying S. aureus in nares was shown in various studies performed in different countries among healthy individuals; 23.4% in Malaysia, 33.3% in Nigeria, 26.5% in Tabriz, and 40% in Jordan. [17] In this respect, Fanelli et al. also determined the frequency of S. aureus colonization among patients with acne. They reported that 25% of patients had S. aureus solely in their nose; and 19% had S. aureus in both their nose and their throat. [12] In addition, one in vitro study performed in acne vulgaris found that in aerobic culture of skin lesions, S. aureus was present in 41% of subjects, and in anaerobic bacterial culture, S. aureus was present in 39% of subjects. [5] The comparison of results shows that it is still unclear whether S. aureus is actually a causal agent in the pathogenesis of acne. Based on a review of the microbiological data of both healthy and acne-affected persons, we propose that S. aureus has no role in acne pathogenesis. Nevertheless, the findings of the present study suggest that S. aureus colonizations in patients and healthy populations can be a potential source of infections. It is notable that asymptomatic colonization can persist for months to years, [18] therefore effective strategies to prevent S. aureus infections are urgently needed. [19]

In the last part of current study, antibiotic susceptibility patterns showed that most of S. aureus isolates were resistant to doxycycline and tetracycline in acne group. Since these antibiotic agents previously used to treat acne, the results indicate that the widespread use of antibiotics can lead to antimicrobial resistance with serious problems not limited to P. acnes, but also to other bacterial species. [20] The choice of antibacterial should take into account the severity of the acne, cost-effectiveness, benefit-risk ratios, and the potential for the development of resistance. [21] The treatment options in acne are far from ideal, [22] therefore the improved understanding of acne pathogenesis should lead to a logical therapy to successfully treat this skin disease. Moreover, the results of the study demonstrated that rifampicin was the most sensitive antibiotic for acne vulgaris, which is consistent to reports by some other investigators. [5] On the basis of these results, we propose that rifampicin can be a suitable antibiotic for acne, but to achieve a better treatment, a combination of rifampicin with other antibiotic drugs may be more efficient. (We mentioned and referred that in some studies rifampicin was the most sensitive antibiotic for acne).

Limitations of the present study were small sample size and very little published evidence. It is noteworthy to mention that present survey may be affected by selection bias because our sampling framework was limited to specific setting with specific aim. Further comprehensive research with larger population should be considered to fully define the potential role of S. aureus in acne pathogenesis, until the results can be generalized more accurately.

  Conclusions Top

Based on our results we propose that contribution of S. aureus in acne pathogenesis is controversial. In fact, this hypothesis should be investigated by future investigations. We believe that because of changeable drug-sensitivity of bacterial strains, it seems important to perform assessment of bacterial flora and antibiotic susceptibility of isolates in acne cases, especially in clinically severe and resistant to treat. Beside the presence of resistant strains of S. aureus to various antibiotics in this study emphasizes the need to discourage antibiotics' abuse and the implementation strategies for elimination of carriage of S. aureus.

  Acknowledgement Top

We would like to thank all the volunteers for their co-operation during data collection.

  References Top

1.Nakatsuji T, Kao MC, Fang JY, Zouboulis CC, Zhang L, Gallo RL, et al. Antimicrobial property of lauric acid against Propionibacterium acnes: Its therapeutic potential for inflammatory acne vulgaris. J Invest Dermatol 2009;129:2480-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Knutsen-Larson S, Dawson AL, Dunnick CA, Dellavalle RP. Acne vulgaris: Pathogenesis, treatment, and needs assessment. Dermatol Clin 2012;30:99-106.  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Safizadeh H, Shamsi-Meymandy S, Naeimi A. Quality of life in Iranian patients with acne. Dermatol Res Pract 2012;2012:571516.  Back to cited text no. 3
4.Davis EC, Callender VD. A review of acne in ethnic skin: Pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and management strategies. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 2010;3:24-38.  Back to cited text no. 4
5.Hassanzadeh P, Bahmani M, Mehrabani D. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics in acne vulgaris: An in vitro study. Indian J Dermatol 2008;53:122-4.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
6.Tan AW, Tan HH. Acne vulgaris: A review of antibiotic therapy. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2005;6:409-18.  Back to cited text no. 6
7.Del Rosso JQ, Leyden JJ, Thiboutot D, Webster GF. Antibiotic use in acne vulgaris and rosacea: Clinical considerations and resistance issues of significance to dermatologists. Cutis 2008;82(2 Suppl 2):5-12.  Back to cited text no. 7
8.Mertz D, Frei R, Periat N, Zimmerli M, Battegay M, Flückiger U, et al. Exclusive Staphylococcus aureus throat carriage: At-risk populations. Arch Intern Med 2009;169:172-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
9.Frank DN, Feazel LM, Bessesen MT, Price CS, Janoff EN, Pace NR. The human nasal microbiota and Staphylococcus aureus carriage. PLoS One 2010;5:e10598.  Back to cited text no. 9
10.Onanuga A, Temedie TC. Multidrug-resistant intestinal Staphylococcus aureus among self-medicated healthy adults in Amassoma, South-South, Nigeria. J Health PopulNutr 2011;29:446-53.  Back to cited text no. 10
11.Adesida SA, Abioye OA, Bamiro BS, Brai BI, Smith SI, Amisu KO, et al. Associated risk factors and pulsed field gel electrophoresis of nasal isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from medical students in a tertiary hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Braz J Infect Dis 2007;11:63-9.  Back to cited text no. 11
12.Fanelli M, Kupperman E, Lautenbach E, Edelstein PH, Margolis DJ. Antibiotics, acne, and Staphylococcus aureus colonization. Arch Dermatol 2011;147:917-21.  Back to cited text no. 12
13.Bez Y, Yesilova Y, Kaya MC, Sir A. High social phobia frequency and related disability in patients with acne vulgaris. Eur J Dermatol 2011;21:756-60.  Back to cited text no. 13
14.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance Standards antimicrobial susceptibility testing; seventeen information supplement; 2007;27:M100-S17.  Back to cited text no. 14
15.Knor T. The pathogenesis of acne. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2005;13:44-9.  Back to cited text no. 15
16.Shaheen B, Gonzalez M. A microbial aetiology of acne: What is the evidence? Br J Dermatol 2011;165:474-85.  Back to cited text no. 16
17.Khorvash F, Abdi F, Ataei B, Fattahi Neisiani H, Hasanzadeh Kashani H, Narimani T. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus: Frequency and antibiotic resistance in healthy adults. J Res Med Sci 2012:17.  Back to cited text no. 17
18.Chatterjee SS, Ray P, Aggarwal A, Das A, Sharma M. A community-based study on nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. Indian J Med Res 2009;130:742-8.  Back to cited text no. 18
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
19.Wertheim HF, Melles DC, Vos MC, van Leeuwen W, van Belkum A, et al. The role of nasal carriage in Staphylococcus aureus infections. Lancet Infect Dis 2005;5:751-62.  Back to cited text no. 19
20.Patel M, Bowe WP, Heughebaert C, Shalita AR. The development of antimicrobial resistance due to the antibiotic treatment of acne vulgaris: A review. J Drugs Dermatol 2010;9:655-64.  Back to cited text no. 20
21.Tan HH. Antibacterial therapy for acne: A guide to selection and use of systemic agents. Am J Clin Dermatol 2003;4:307-14.  Back to cited text no. 21
22.Lomholt HB, Kilian M. Is acne caused by colonization with the "wrong" strain of Propionibacterium acnes? A review of the role of Propionibacterium acnes in acne. Ugeskr Laeger 2008;170:1234-7.  Back to cited text no. 22


  [Table 1]

This article has been cited by
1 Microbiomes in Acne Vulgaris and Their Susceptibility to Antibiotics in Indonesia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Lili Legiawati, Paulus Anthony Halim, Magna Fitriani, Hardya Gustada Hikmahrachim, Henry W. Lim
Antibiotics. 2023; 12(1): 145
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Factors Participating in the Occurrence of Inflammation of the Lips (Cheilitis) and Perioral Skin
Liborija Lugovic-Mihic, Bruno Špiljak, Tadeja Blagec, Marija Delaš Aždajic, Nika Franceschi, Ana Gašic, Ena Parac
Cosmetics. 2023; 10(1): 9
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Occupational skin dermatoses among health care workers: a review of adverse skin reactions to personal protective equipment
Agnes Rosarina Prita Sari, Yudha Nur Patria, Olivia Roselin Wiguna, Hardyanto Soebono, Sri Awalia Febriana
Dermatology Reports. 2022; 14(4)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 ?????????? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???
?. ?. ???????, ?. ?. ????????, ?. ?. ????????
Medical Science of Armenia. 2022; : 76
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Bacteria associated with acne use glycosaminoglycans as cell adhesion receptors and promote changes in the expression of the genes involved in their biosynthesis
Carla Martín, Helena Ordiales, Francisco Vázquez, Marta Pevida, David Rodríguez, Jesús Merayo, Fernando Vázquez, Beatriz García, Luis M. Quirós
BMC Microbiology. 2022; 22(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Formulation of Anti Acne Loose Powder of Bawang Dayak (Eleutherine bulbosa (Mill.) Urb.) Ethanol Extract
Susi Novaryatiin, Nursheilla Rizky Amalia, Syahrida Dian Ardhany
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy. 2022; 5(2): 153
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Cotton and Surgical Face Masks in Community Settings: Bacterial Contamination and Face Mask Hygiene
Lize Delanghe,Eline Cauwenberghs,Irina Spacova,Ilke De Boeck,Wannes Van Beeck,Koen Pepermans,Ingmar Claes,Dieter Vandenheuvel,Veronique Verhoeven,Sarah Lebeer
Frontiers in Medicine. 2021; 8
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Metagenomic Sequencing Analysis for Acne Using Machine Learning Methods Adapted to Single or Multiple Data
Yu Wang, Mengru Sun, Yifan Duan, Qi Dai
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine. 2021; 2021: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Antibacterial Mechanisms and Efficacy of Sarecycline in Animal Models of Infection and Inflammation
Christopher G. Bunick,Jonette Keri,S. Ken Tanaka,Nika Furey,Giovanni Damiani,Jodi L. Johnson,Ayman Grada
Antibiotics. 2021; 10(4): 439
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 The “Maskne” microbiome – pathophysiology and therapeutics
Wan-Lin Teo
International Journal of Dermatology. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Antibacterial Activity of Medicinal Plants and Their Constituents in the Context of Skin and Wound Infections, Considering European Legislation and Folk Medicine—A Review
Silvia Bittner Fialová,Katarína Rendeková,Pavel Mucaji,Milan Nagy,Lívia Slobodníková
International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(19): 10746
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Propanediol (and) Caprylic Acid (and) Xylitol as a New Single Topical Active Ingredient against Acne: In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacy Assays
Lilian Mussi, André Rolim Baby, Flavio Bueno Camargo Camargo Junior, Giovana Padovani, Bianca da Silva Sufi, Wagner Vidal Magalhăes
Molecules. 2021; 26(21): 6704
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Ecology and Genetic Lineages of Nasal Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA Carriage in Healthy Persons with or without Animal-Related Occupational Risks of Colonization: A Review of Global Reports
Idris Nasir Abdullahi,Carmen Lozano,Laura Ruiz-Ripa,Rosa Fernández-Fernández,Myriam Zarazaga,Carmen Torres
Pathogens. 2021; 10(8): 1000
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Red Seaweed-Derived Compounds as a Potential New Approach for Acne Vulgaris Care
Adriana P. Januário, Rafael Félix, Carina Félix, Joăo Reboleira, Patrícia Valentăo, Marco F. L. Lemos
Pharmaceutics. 2021; 13(11): 1930
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 Stimulatory Effect of Epinephrine on Biofilms of Micrococcus luteus C01
N. D. Danilova,T. V. Solovyeva,S. V. Mart’yanov,M. V. Zhurina,A. V. Gannesen
Microbiology. 2020; 89(4): 493
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Formulation and evaluation of antiacne cream by using Clove oil
K.S. Misar,S.B. Kulkarni,W.B. Gurnule
Materials Today: Proceedings. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 Antimicrobial activity of certain natural-based plant oils against the antibiotic-resistant Acne bacteria
Ahmed Esmael,Mervat G. Hassan,Mahmoud M. Amer,Soheir Abdelrahman,Ahmed M. Hamed,Hagar A. Abd-raboh,Mohamed F. Foda
Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 Inflammatory skin is associated with changes in the skin microbiota composition on the back of severe acne patients
Marie-Ange Dagnelie,Emmanuel Montassier,Amir Khammari,Carine Mounier,Stéphane Corvec,Brigitte Dréno
Experimental Dermatology. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 The susceptibility of pathogens associated with acne vulgaris to antibiotics
Irma Bernadette Simbolon Sitohang,Hafizah Fathan,Evita Effendi,Mardiastuti Wahid
Medical Journal of Indonesia. 2019; 28(1): 21
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 Insights on the Use of Nanocarriers for Acne Alleviation
Sandra Sherif Amer,Maha Nasr,Wael Mamdouh,Omaima Sammour
Current Drug Delivery. 2018; 16(1): 18
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 Regulation of Monospecies and Mixed Biofilms Formation of Skin Staphylococcus aureus and Cutibacterium acnes by Human Natriuretic Peptides
Andrei Vladislavovich Gannesen,Olivier Lesouhaitier,Pierre-Jean Racine,Magalie Barreau,Alexander I. Netrusov,Vladimir K. Plakunov,Marc G. J. Feuilloley
Frontiers in Microbiology. 2018; 9
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Models for acne: A comprehensive study
Indu Lata Kanwar,Tanweer Haider,Anju Kumari,Sandeep Dubey,Priyanka Jain,Vandana Soni
Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics. 2018; 12(6): 329
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 Anti-acne drugs in phase 1 and 2 clinical trials
Christos C. Zouboulis,Clio Dessinioti,Fragkiski Tsatsou,Harald P. M. Gollnick
Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs. 2017; 26(7): 813
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 Relationship between lipase enzyme and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus-positive and Staphylococcus epidermidis-positive isolates from acne vulgaris
Reham W. Doss,Alshimaa M. Abbas Mostafa,Ahmed E. El-Din Arafa,Nagla Abd El-Moneim Radi
Journal of the Egyptian Women's Dermatologic Society. 2017; 14(3): 167
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 Staphylococcus aureus carriage rates and antibiotic resistance patterns in patients with acne vulgaris
Gregory R. Delost,Maria E. Delost,James Armile,Jenifer Lloyd
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 2016;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 A systematic review and meta-analysis on Staphylococcus aureus carriage in psoriasis, acne and rosacea
J. E. E. Totté,W. T. van der Feltz,L. G. M. Bode,A. van Belkum,E. J. van Zuuren,S. G. M. A. Pasmans
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases. 2016;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 Occupational exposure to raw meat: A newly-recognized risk factor for Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization amongst food handlers
J. Ho,M.M. O’Donoghue,M.V. Boost
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. 2013;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

  In this article
Materials and Me...
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded783    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 27    

Recommend this journal