Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
Visit old site
Home Print this page Email this page Small font size Default font size Increase font size
Users Online: 109

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 30-34

A significant association between intestinal helminth infection and anaemia burden in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria

1 Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria
2 Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho, Nigeria

Date of Web Publication9-Nov-2011

Correspondence Address:
Favour Osazuwa
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State,
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4297/najms.2011.330

Rights and Permissions

Background : Anaemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia and evaluate the relationship of intestinal helminth infection on the anaemia status of children in the rural communities of Evbuomore, Isiohor, and Ekosodin. in the Ovia North East local government area of Edo State, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods : Faecal samples and blood samples were obtained from 316 children aged 1-15 years. Faecal samples were examined using standard parasitological techniques, and anaemia was defined as blood haemoglobin <11 g/dL. Results : Of the 316 children, 38.6% were anaemic: 75.9% of children in Evbuomore, 42.3% in Isiohor and 26.8% in Ekosodin. The overall parasite prevalence in the three communities were: Ascaris lumbricoides (75.6%), hookworm (16.19%) and Trichuris trichiura (7.3%). Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted, and 44.0% underweight. There was a statistically significant association between hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infection and anaemia (P < .001). Serum ferritin levels were more sensitive than haemoglobin in detecting anemia and were correlated with intestinal helminth infection. Conclusion : Intestinal helminth infection in a concomitant state of malnutrition is observed in this population. Intervention programmes should be aimed at control of intestinal helminth infection and iron supplementation.

Keywords: Anaemia, Children, Iron deficiency anaemia, Intestinal helminth infection.

How to cite this article:
Osazuwa F, Ayo OM, Imade P. A significant association between intestinal helminth infection and anaemia burden in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria. North Am J Med Sci 2011;3:30-4

How to cite this URL:
Osazuwa F, Ayo OM, Imade P. A significant association between intestinal helminth infection and anaemia burden in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria. North Am J Med Sci [serial online] 2011 [cited 2023 Jun 6];3:30-4. Available from: https://www.najms.org/text.asp?2011/3/1/30/86394

  Introduction Top

Anaemia continues to be a major public health problem worldwide. According to estimates of the World Health Organization, two billion people suffer from anaemia in the world [1] . The highest prevalence of anaemia exists in the developing world where its causes are multifactorial, ranging from micronutrient deficiencies, including iron, folate, and vitamin B 12; and infectious diseases [2] . Iron deficiency anaemia is thought to affect the health of more than one billion people worldwide, and it is the most common form of anaemia in the developing world [3] . Iron deficiency anaemia accounts for most of the anaemia that occurs due to parasitic infections. Most seriously affected are young children and women in less developed countries [4] . The susceptibility of children to parasitic infections is due to their lower immune response compared to adults, poor hygiene, and poor sanitary and environmental conditions which favour the development of parasites and eventual infection of hosts [3] . Anaemia in children has been related to reduced work performance, reduced cognitive functions, growth retardation, and impaired immune systems [5] .

Anaemia is often associated with parasitic disease such as malaria and hookworm infections [6],[7] . Hookworms contribute to anaemia because it induces iron deficiency by chronic intestinal blood loss. The two species of hookworms Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus cause about 0.2 mL and 0.15 mL blood loss per day respectively. Hookworms also release anti clotting factors (i.e., coagulase, a blood thinner) which ensures continuous blood flow [7] . High intensity Trichuris and Ascaris infections have been known to influence nutritional status [7] .

In an earlier report [8] , a non-significant association between malaria parasitaemia and anaemia was reported. This work reports on the prevalence of anaemia in the rural communities of Evbuomore, Isiohor and Ekosodin of Edo state, Nigeria, and evaluates the association between intestinal helminthiasis and anaemia status.

  Subjects and Methods Top

Prior to the commencement of the study, permission was obtained from the Local Education Authority of the Ovia Local Government Area, and from the elders of the communities. The study was carried out in Isiohor, Evbuomore and Ekosodin villages located in Ovia Local Government area of Edo State, Nigeria between February and June, 2010. The villages are good representations of the area in style of living, culture and occupations practiced.

Both male and female children aged 1-15 years in schools and healthcare centres made up the study population. Personal hygiene and environmental sanitation information were obtained about the children; this was done directly through the teachers or health centre nurses who were familiar with the local conditions. Information on age, sex, and nutritional levels were obtained with a questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements included height and weight using a standing scale and a paper stadiometer attached to a straight wall.

Sample collection

Labeled wide-mouthed specimen bottles with screw caps were distributed to participating school children a day before the study. The children were instructed to bring freshly passed stool the following day. Instructions on how to avoid contamination were also given to each child, and the time of stool collection noted. Only stool samples collected within 2 hours of delivery were used in the study. A blood sample of 5mL of venous blood was carefully drawn into potassium EDTA-containing tubes.

Sample analysis

Laboratory analysis of the samples was done at the Medical Microbiology Laboratory of University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria.

The faecal samples were examined for parasites using the method described by the World Health Organization [9] . Microscopic examination of a stool sample was followed by direct saline and iodine preparation. A portion of the stool sample was emulsified in normal saline on a glass slide, covered with a cover slip, and examined microscopically using 10X and 40X objectives for ova of parasites. A drop of iodine solution was added to a homogenous saline preparation of the stool sample, covered with a cover slip, and examined microscopically using 10X and 40X objectives for the cysts of parasites.

Samples that were negative for parasite ova and cysts were subjected to a concentration method as described by the World Health Organization [9] . The formal ether concentration technique was used. A 1g sample of the stool was emulsified in 5 mL of formal saline, sieved, and the suspension collected in a centrifuge tube, followed by the addition of 3mL of ether. The well-mixed suspension was centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 1 minute. The supernatant was discarded, and the sediment examined microscopically using 10X and 40X objectives for cysts and ova of parasites.

Haemoglobin concentration estimation

Haemoglobin concentration (Hb) was determined by photometry, using a Sysmex KX-21N haemoglobin auto-analyzer instrument [10] . Anaemia was defined as a haemoglobin concentration <11g/dL.

An enzyme immunoassay kit for the determination of ferritin in serum (BIOTEC Laboratories Ltd, UK) was used to test 122 blood samples from the three villages following the manufacturer's directions. Briefly, the assay detects serum ferritin using two specific monoclonal antibodies directed against two different epitopes on the serum ferritin molecule. The capturing monoclonal antibody is conjugated to biotin, while the second monoclonal antibody is labeled with horseradish peroxidase, which reacts with the chromogen, tetramethylbenzidine (TMB). Human liver ferritin standards containing 0, 5, 20, 100, 400, and l000 ng/mL ferritin were used to produce a standard curve. Plates were read at an absorbance of 405 nm. Absorbance values were converted to concentration using the ferritin standard curve.

Statistical analysis

A correlation analysis to determine the relationship between anemia and physical status (wasting, stunting, and underweight) was carried out using SPSS software. The dependent variables Hb and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) were regressed on the dummy variables of normal, mild- moderate and severe malnutrition as arrived at using the categories of weight for height (W/H), height for age (H/A) and weight for age (W/A). The models allowed us to know if there was any significant difference between the Hb and MUAC of normal and malnourished children. Two dummy variables were introduced into the regression model to avoid perfect co-linearity of regressors. The category of normal nutritional status was used as the base dummy, in order to allow the directly estimated coefficients of the dummy variables in the model to be estimated as the deviation in the level of the dependent variable of the normal from that of the category in question.

  Results Top

A total of 316 school children were enrolled in the study: 142 from Isiohor, 32 from Evbuomore, and 144 from Ekosodin. There were 162 (51.26%) boys and 154 (48.73%) girls. The mean age of the children was 5.67 years. The overall prevalence of anaemia in the three communities is shown in [Table 1].

[Table 2] summarizes the overall sex- and age-related prevalence of parasitaemia. Parasitaemia prevalence was similar in both sexes. The age group from 1-5 years had the highest parasite prevalence, followed by the age group 6-10 years and 11-15 years (P < .001). A. lumbricoides showed the highest number of cases in all age groups.
Table 1: Prevalence of anaemia in three communities

Click here to view
Table 1: Prevalence of anaemia in three communities

Click here to view

The nutritional status of the study children was based on underweight and stunting as defined in the Methods. The total number and percent of children judged to be malnourished was shown. The type and degree of malnutrition in the study children is shown in [Table 3]. Underweight was the most prevalent form of malnutrition, while the most severe form was stunting. There was a significant positive correlation between stunting and underweight (P < .001). Regression analysis showed that mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) differed significantly between children with a normal nutritional status and those severely malnourished (P = .01). Serum ferritin levels were more sensitive than haemoglobin concentration in detecting anemic children. About 9.8% (12/122) had serum ferritin values near normal (i.e., less than 10 ng/mL). Serum ferritin concentration was significantly lower among children in Evbuomore (1l0 ng/mL) than among children in Isiohor and Ekosodin (175 ng/mL) (P < .001). Serum ferritin concentration correlated with intestinal helminthiasis, so anemia in this population is probably associated to a concomitant intestinal helminthiasis within a superimposed deficiency in iron.

[Table 4] shows the relationship between individual parasite types and anaemia. Hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infections were independent risk factors for anaemia (P < .001).
Table 3: Types and degree of malnutrition

Click here to view
Table 4: Association of intestinal helminth infection on anaemia burden

Click here to view

  Discussion Top

Anaemia is very common in developing countries and a multi-country survey in sub-Saharan Africa showed that it is generally a serious problem in school children [11] . In the rural areas of Edo state, Nigeria, anaemia in children was shown to be a worrying public health problem in a very recent report of a study we carried out [8] , and a prevalence of 38.6% for anaemia was recorded. The mean age of children in this study was 5.67 years, which is within the age range that is at the highest risk of anaemia as reported by Calis et al [5] . When compared to the two other communities studied, Evbuomore had a higher prevalence of anaemia. In this area, the mean age of the children studied was 2.75 years, which may explain a marked reduction in haemoglobin concentration, as most of the children at this age are in rapid growth spurts.

This study showed that although Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent parasite in both sexes, none of the parasites were gender-dependent, in conformity with a previous report [12] . Ascariasis decreased gradually in prevalence as the age of the children increased. However, the high prevalence of parasitaemia in virtually all age groups indicates general ignorance and/or deliberate neglect of basic rules of hygiene among the children. The observation of a relatively higher prevalence of hookworm in the age group 1-5 years may be an indication of poor hygienic practices. However, the prevalence of T. trichiura is similar in all age groups, and this can be explained by frequent contact with infected stool when children play outside.

Hookworm infection is causally linked to anaemia in humans [7] . The prevalence in this study was 16.19%. This rate is higher than that reported by Odebunmi and co-workers [3] among children in Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria, who reported that 15 (3.2%) out of 463 samples examined were positive for hookworm, but less than that recently reported by Agbolade et al [13] , where school children attending public schools in Ijesha-Ijebu and Okun-owa in Ogun State had a prevalence of 90 (17%) out of 1,059 subjects sampled and Nmorsi et al [14] where preschool children in Akoko-Edo, Edo state had a prevalence of 65.7% . Whether or not a person with hookworm infection develops anaemia depends on the worm species and load, duration of infection, body iron stores, dietary intake and absorption, and physiological iron requirement. A low hookworm load can cause anaemia in people whose intake of iron is low and whose iron stores are already depleted [15] . In this study, considering hookworm as an independent risk factor for anaemia, there was a significant association between hookworm and anaemia status. This report agrees with previous studies of Stoltzfus et al [16] , but disagrees with that of Hung et al [17] where no association was established between hookworm infection and anaemia among children of ethnic minority of Phan tien village in Vietnam.

Moderate or high intensity Trichuris infections are also associated with anaemia [18] . The prevalence of 7.3% recorded in this study agrees with that of Agbolade et al [13] and Nmorsi et al [14] . Considering T. trichiura in this study as an independent risk factor for anaemia, there was no significant association with anaemia. This disagrees with report of Ezeamama et al [19] .

The prevalence of 75.6% in this study for Ascaris is in congruence with most recent reports [13],[14] , where a high prevalence of ascariasis among the subjects studied was corroborated by the relatively high occurrence of unhygienic habits among them. Ascariasis is known to influence nutritional status [20] , but its impacts on anaemia is less clear. There was a significant association between ascariasis and anaemia. Other studies have used height, weight or haemogblobin concentrations as indices to assess the nutritional status of parasite-infected children and children treated for parasites, and show a remarkable improvement in haemoglobin status in children given iron supplementation, thus reiterating the contribution of worm infestation to childhood malnutrition [21] .

Serum ferritin levels as measured by ELISA can be reliably used to diagnose anemia, as this study has shown. This test for anaemia is very sensitive and easily done. There was a significant association between serum ferritin values and intestinal helminth infection in this study; this suggests that the anemia measured in this population may have been due to a concomitant intestinal helminth infection and malnutrition.

  Acknowledgement Top

We thank the staff and students of the schools in Isiohor, Ekosodin and Evbuomore for their cooperation, and the laboratory assistants and nurses of Ekosodin Health centre for their contribution to this study. We would also like to acknowledge the editorial assistance of Dr. Belinda Peace.

  References Top

1.World Health Organization. Iron Deficiency Anaemia: Assessment, Prevention and Control .World Health Organization, Geneva. 2001: 167-190.  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Yip R, Ramakrishnan R. Experiences and Challenges in developing countries. J. Nutri 2002; 4:129-132.  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Odebunmi JF, Adefioye OA, Adeyeba A. Hookworm infection among school children in Vom, Plateau state Nigeria. American Eurasian J Sci Research 2007; 1: 39-42.  Back to cited text no. 3
4.Dallman P. Present knowledge in nutrition. ILSI Press Washington. Washington 1991: 132-167.   Back to cited text no. 4
5.Calis JC, Phiri KJ, Farragher EB. Severe anaemia in Malawian children N Eng J Med 2008; 358; 9:888-999.  Back to cited text no. 5
6.Anumudu CI, Okafor CMF, Ngwumohaike V, Afolabi KA, Nwuba R, Nwagwu M. Epidemiological factors that promote the development of severe malaria anaemia in Children in Ibadan. Afri Health Sci 2007; 7:80-85.   Back to cited text no. 6
7.Hotez PJ, Molyneux DH. One of Africa's Great Killers and a Rationale for linking Malaria and Neglected Tropical diseases control to achieve a Common Goal. Plos Negl Trop Dis 2008; 2: 270-274  Back to cited text no. 7
8.Osazuwa F, Ayo OM. Contribution of malnutrition and anaemia to anaemia status in children in rural communities in Edo state, Nigeria. North Am J Med Sci 2010; 2:532-536.  Back to cited text no. 8
  Medknow Journal  
9.World Health Organisation. WHO Basic Laboratory methods in Medical Parasitology. WHO. Geneva; 1991:23-26.  Back to cited text no. 9
10.Hedwin, Seiko E, Hewlett E I, Nemour P. Sysmex auto analyzer model KX-2IN Version 2008. Sysmex Corporation 2008.  Back to cited text no. 10
11.Crawley J. Reducing the burden of anaemia in infants and young children in malaria-endemic countries of Africa: from evidence to action. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2004; 71:25-34.  Back to cited text no. 11
12.Taiwo AK, Agbolade OM. Intestinal helminthiasis among school children in Oru, Ogun state, Nigeria. Nigerian J Sci 2000; 34:283-286.  Back to cited text no. 12
13.Agbolade OM, Agu NC, Adesanya OO, Odejayi AO, Adigun AA Adesanlu EB, et al. Intestinal helminthiasis and Schistosomiasis among school children in an urban center and some rural communities in southwest Nigeria. Korean J Parasitol 2007; 45: 233-238.  Back to cited text no. 13
14.Nmorsi ONG, Isaac C, Aashikpelokhai SI, Ukwandu ND. Geohelminthiasis among Nigerian preschool age children .International J Med Med Sci 2009; 10: 407-411.  Back to cited text no. 14
15.Hotez PJ, Bethony J, Bottazzi ME, Brooker S, Buss P. Hookworm: the Great Infection of Mankind. Plos Med 2005; 2: 67-70.  Back to cited text no. 15
16.Stoltzfus RJ, Chwaya HM, Montressor A, Tielsch JM, Jape JK, Albonico M, et al. Low dose daily iron supplementation improves iron status and appetite but not anaemia, whereas quarterly anthelminthic treatment improves growth, appetite and anemia in Zanzibari preschool children. J Nutr 134: 348-356  Back to cited text no. 16
17.Hung LQ, Giao PT, Peter V, Binh TQ. Anaemia, malaria and hookworm infections in a Vietnamese ethnic minority. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Pub Health 2005; 36:234-237.  Back to cited text no. 17
18.Brooker S, Akhwale W, Pullan R, Estambale B, Clarke SE. Epidemiology of Plasmodium-Helminth co-infection in Africa: Populations at risk, potential impact on anaemia and prospects for combining control. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2007; 77: 88-98.  Back to cited text no. 18
19.Ezeamama A, Friedman JF, Acosta LP, Bellinger D, Langdon GC. Helminth Infection and Cognitive impartment among Filipino Children. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2003; 72:115-118.  Back to cited text no. 19
20.da Silva BR, Brooker S, Hotez PJ, Montressor A, Engels D, Savioli L. Soil-transmitted Helminth infections: Updating the global Picture. Trends parasitol 2003;27: 547-551.  Back to cited text no. 20
21.Albonico M, Allen H, Chitsulo L, Engels D, Gabrielli F, Savioli L. Controlling Soil Transmitted helminthiasis in pre-school age children through preventive chemotherapy. Plos Negl Trop Dis 2008; 34:234-238.  Back to cited text no. 21


  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]

This article has been cited by
1 Prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium and Intestinal Helminth Infections among Nigerian School Children
Tolulope Alade, Thuy-Huong Ta-Tang, Sulaiman Adebayo Nassar, Akeem Abiodun Akindele, Raquel Capote-Morales, Tosin Blessing Omobami, Pedro Berzosa
Diagnostics. 2023; 13(4): 759
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Helminth Infection among Children Living in an Urban Area in Tropical Countries: A Systematic Review
Sharifah Saffinas Syed Soffian, Mazni Baharom, Siti Maisara Amir, Nor Izyani Bahari, Mohd Rohaizat Hassan, Syed Sharizman Syed Abdul Rahim, Mohammad Saffree Jeffree, Abdul Rahman Ramdzan, Azman Atil, Khalid Mokti, Mohd Faizal Madrim, Muhammad Aklil Abd Rahim, Zulkhairul Naim Bin Sidek Ahmad
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2023; 11(F): 134
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Anaemia and Nutritional Status during HIV and Helminth Coinfection among Adults in South Africa
Miranda N. Mpaka-Mbatha, Pragalathan Naidoo, Md Mazharul Islam, Ravesh Singh, Zilungile L. Mkhize-Kwitshana
Nutrients. 2022; 14(23): 4970
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Hemoglobin Level and Risk of Anemia in Soil-Transmitted Helminths Infections among Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Ahmad Razi Maulana Alnaz, Dewi Masyithah Darlan, Yunilda Andriyani, Rodiah Rahmawaty Lubis
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2022; 10(F): 355
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Effects of deworming medication on anaemia among children aged 6–59 months in sub-Saharan Africa
Andy Bauleni, Fentanesh N. Tiruneh, Tisungane E. Mwenyenkulu, Owen Nkoka, Gowokani C. Chirwa, Steve Gowelo, Michael G. Chipeta, Peter A. M. Ntenda
Parasites & Vectors. 2022; 15(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Individual-and community-level factors associated with anemia among children aged 6–23 months in sub-Saharan Africa: evidence from 32 sub-Saharan African countries
Beminate Lemma Seifu, Getayeneh Antehunegn Tesema
Archives of Public Health. 2022; 80(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Prevalence and associated risk factors of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Kandahar, Afghanistan
Bilal Ahmad Rahimi, Bashir Ahmad Mahboobi, Mohammad Hashim Wafa, Mohammad Sediq Sahrai, Muhammad Haroon Stanikzai, Walter R. Taylor
BMC Infectious Diseases. 2022; 22(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Anemia and undernutrition in intestinally parasitized schoolchildren from Gakenke district, Northern Province of Rwanda
María José Irisarri-Gutiérrez, Lucrecia Acosta, Lucy Anne Parker, Rafael Toledo, Fernando Jorge Bornay-Llinares, José Guillermo Esteban, Carla Muñoz-Antolí, Srinivas Goli
PLOS ONE. 2022; 17(1): e0262361
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Prevalence and risk factors of malaria and anaemia and the impact of preventive methods among pregnant women: A case study at the Akatsi South District in Ghana
Asiwome Ahadzie-Soglie, Otchere Addai-Mensah, Albert Abaka-Yawson, Anita Mawuse Setroame, Precious Kwablah Kwadzokpui, James Mockridge
PLOS ONE. 2022; 17(7): e0271211
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Soil-transmitted helminth infection, anemia, and malnutrition among preschool-age children in Nangapanda subdistrict, Indonesia
Yenny Djuardi,Gilbert Lazarus,Difa Stefanie,Umi Fahmida,Iwan Ariawan,Taniawati Supali,Maria Angeles Gómez-Morales
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2021; 15(6): e0009506
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Transient Ascaris suum larval migration induces intractable chronic pulmonary disease and anemia in mice
Yifan Wu, Evan Li, Morgan Knight, Grace Adeniyi-Ipadeola, Li-zhen Song, Alan R. Burns, Ana Clara Gazzinelli-Guimaraes, Ricardo Fujiwara, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Jill E. Weatherhead, Keke C. Fairfax
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2021; 15(12): e0010050
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Prevalence of anemia and its associated factors among children aged 6–59 months in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic: A multilevel analysis
Sengtavanh Keokenchanh,Sengchanh Kounnavong,Kaoru Midorikawa,Wakaha Ikeda,Akemi Morita,Takumi Kitajima,Shigeru Sokejima,Bárbara Hatzlhoffer Lourenço
PLOS ONE. 2021; 16(3): e0248969
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Assessment of fecal calprotectin and fecal occult blood as point-of-care markers for soil-transmitted helminth attributable intestinal morbidity in a case-control substudy conducted in Côte dæIvoire, Lao PDR and Pemba Island, Tanzania
Chandni Patel,Ladina Keller,Sophie Welsche,Jan Hattendorf,Somphou Sayasone,Said M. Ali,Shaali M. Ame,Jean Tenena Coulibaly,Eveline Hürlimann,Jennifer Keiser
EClinicalMedicine. 2021; 32: 100724
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Prevalence of Intestinal Parasite Infection and its Association with Anemia among Children Aged 6 to 59 Months in Sidama National Regional State, Southern Ethiopia
Amelo Bolka Gujo, Assefa Philipos Kare
Clinical Medicine Insights: Pediatrics. 2021; 15: 1179556521
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
Manish Bordoloi,Runumi Chowdhury,Dipa Barkataki
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Correlation between Soil-transmitted Helminths and Anemia Incidence in Primary School Children in Talawi, Batubara Regency
Willhans Wijaya,Ayodhia Pitaloka Pasaribu,Gema Nazri Yanni,Erwin Suteno,Nirmala Husin,Syahril Pasaribu
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2021; 9(T3): 325
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 Iron-Enriched Nutritional Supplements for the 2030 Pharmacy Shelves
Giulio Verna,Annamaria Sila,Marina Liso,Mauro Mastronardi,Marcello Chieppa,Hellas Cena,Pietro Campiglia
Nutrients. 2021; 13(2): 378
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 The Effects of Deworming and Multiple Micronutrients on Anaemia in Preschool Children in Bangladesh: Analysis of Five Cross-Sectional Surveys
Haribondhu Sarma, Kinley Wangdi, Md Tariqujjaman, Ratish Das, Mahfuzur Rahman, Matthew Kelly, Tahmeed Ahmed, Darren J. Gray
Nutrients. 2021; 14(1): 150
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 What Can Parasites Tell Us About the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Asthma and Allergic Diseases
Sina Bohnacker,Fabiana Troisi,Marta de los Reyes Jiménez,Julia Esser-von Bieren
Frontiers in Immunology. 2020; 11
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Anaemia in Children Aged Six Months to Fifteen Years Admitted to University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia
M. N. Inambao, V Mulenga
University of Zambia Journal of Agricultural and Biomedical Sciences. 2020; 4(1): 10
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 Magnitude, Severity, and Associated Factors of Anemia among Under-Five Children Attending Hawassa University Teaching and Referral Hospital, Hawassa, Southern Ethiopia, 2016
Yeshimebet Gebereselassie,Mesganaw BirhanSelassie,Tadesse Menjetta,Jemal Alemu,Aster Tsegaye
Anemia. 2020; 2020: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Intestinal parasitosis, anaemia and risk factors among pre-school children in Tigray region, northern Ethiopia
Araya Gebreyesus Wasihun,Mekonen Teferi,Letemichal Negash,Javier Marugán,Dejen Yemane,Kevin G. McGuigan,Ronan M. Conroy,Haftu Temesgen Abebe,Tsehaye Asmelash Dejene
BMC Infectious Diseases. 2020; 20(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 Co-infections with Plasmodium , Ascaris and Giardia among Rwandan schoolchildren
Dominik Geus,Kevin C. Sifft,Felix Habarugira,Jean Claude Mugisha,Caritas Mukampunga,Jules Ndoli,Claude Bayingana,Augustin Sendegeya,Peter Martus,Kira Fraundorfer,Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna,Jean Bosco Gahutu,Christian Klotz,Anton Aebischer,Frank P. Mockenhaupt
Tropical Medicine & International Health. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 Whipworm Infection Promotes Bacterial Invasion, Intestinal Microbiota Imbalance, and Cellular Immunomodulation
Julieta Schachter,Dayane Alvarinho de Oliveira,Camila Marques da Silva,Alba Cristina Miranda de Barros Alencar,Michelle Duarte,Matheus Müller Pereira da Silva,Ana Claudia de Paula Rosa Ignácio,Eduardo José Lopes-Torres,DeæBroski R. Herbert
Infection and Immunity. 2019; 88(3)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 Influence of Intestinal Helminthiasis on Children Health in Ugbighoko Rural Community of Benin City, Southern Nigeria
Frederick Enorense Omorowa,Kingsley Chukwunonso Agu,Eusebius Chukwu Onyeneke
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences. 2019; 12(2): 106
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections and Anemia in Schoolchildren from Corn Island Archipelago (RAAS, Nicaragua)
Aleyda Pavón,Paloma Pérez,Carla Muñoz-Antoli,Jose-Guillermo Esteban,Rafael Toledo
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2018; 99(6): 1591
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 The burden and epidemiology of polyparasitism among rural communities in Kano State, Nigeria
Salwa Dawaki,Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi,Init Ithoi
Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
28 Correlation between iron deficiency anemia and intestinal parasitic infection in school-age children in Medan
D M Darlan,F R Ananda,M I Sari,N K Arrasyid,D I Sari
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2018; 125: 012059
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
29 Prevalence and predictors of under-nutrition among school children in a rural South-eastern Nigerian community: a cross sectional study
Rufina N. B. Ayogu,Ifeoma C. Afiaenyi,Edith U. Madukwe,Elizabeth A. Udenta
BMC Public Health. 2018; 18(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
30 Maternal anemia is a potential risk factor for anemia in children aged 6–59 months in Southern Africa: a multilevel analysis
Peter A. M. Ntenda,Owen Nkoka,Paul Bass,Thomas Senghore
BMC Public Health. 2018; 18(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
31 Blood and guts: The intestinal vasculature during health and helminth infection
Maria E. Gentile,Irah L. King,Laura J Knoll
PLOS Pathogens. 2018; 14(7): e1007045
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
32 Impact of intestinal helminths on the risks of gastrointestinal haemorrhage and iron deficiency among haemophilia patients in northern Nigeria
Umma A. Ibrahim,Sagir G. Ahmed,Modu B. Kagu,Usman A. Abjah
The Journal of Haemophilia Practice. 2017; 4(1): 58
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
33 Parvovirus B19 Is Associated with a Significant Decrease in Hemoglobin Level among Children <5 Years of Age with Anemia in Northwestern Tanzania
Yustina A Tizeba,Mariam M Mirambo,Neema Kayange,Tumaini Mhada,Emmanuela E Ambrose,Luke R Smart,Stephen E Mshana
Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
34 Pharmacokinetics of Sulfadoxine and Pyrimethamine for Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria During Pregnancy and After Delivery
M de Kock,J Tarning,L Workman,MM Nyunt,I Adam,KI Barnes,P Denti
CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
35 Are Low Intakes and Deficiencies in Iron, Vitamin A, Zinc, and Iodine of Public Health Concern in Ethiopian, Kenyan, Nigerian, and South African Children and Adolescents?
Rajwinder Harika,Mieke Faber,Folake Samuel,Afework Mulugeta,Judith Kimiywe,Ans Eilander
Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2017; 38(3): 405
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
36 The MFFAPP Tanzania Efficacy Study Protocol: Newly Formulated, Extruded, Fortified Blended Foods for Food Aid
Nicole M Delimont, Sirichat Chanadang, Michael V Joseph, Briana E Rockler, Qingbin Guo, Gregory K Regier, Michael R Mulford, Rosemary Kayanda, Mwita Range, Zidiheri Mziray, Ambaksye Jonas, Joseph Mugyabuso, Wences Msuya, Nina K Lilja, Sandra B Procter, Edgar Chambers, Sajid Alavi, Brian L Lindshield
Current Developments in Nutrition. 2017; 1(5): 1005004
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
37 Iron for Africa—Report of an Expert Workshop
Martin Mwangi,Kamija Phiri,Abdelhak Abkari,Mory Gbané,Raphaelle Bourdet-Sicard,Véronique Braesco,Michael Zimmermann,Andrew Prentice
Nutrients. 2017; 9(7): 576
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
38 Chronic Trichuris muris infection alters hematopoiesis and causes IFN-?-expressing T-cell accumulation in the mouse bone marrow
Alistair L. Chenery,Frann Antignano,Michael R. Hughes,Kyle Burrows,Kelly M. McNagny,Colby Zaph
European Journal of Immunology. 2016; 46(11): 2587
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
39 The Effect of Intestinal Parasitic Infection on the Clinical Outcome of Malaria in Coinfected Children in Cameroon
Tebit E. Kwenti,Franklin A. Nkume,Ajime T. Tanjeko,Tayong D. B. Kwenti,James S McCarthy
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2016; 10(4): e0004673
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
40 Co-endemicity of Plasmodium falciparum and Intestinal Helminths Infection in School Age Children in Rural Communities of Kwara State Nigeria
Ayodele Adedoja,Bukola Deborah Tijani,Ajibola A. Akanbi,Taiwo A. Ojurongbe,Oluwaseyi A. Adeyeba,Olusola Ojurongbe,Jeremiah M. Ngondi
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2015; 9(7): e0003940
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
41 Coinfection with malaria and intestinal parasites, and its association with anaemia in children in Cameroon
Anna Longdoh Njunda,Shuri Ghasarah Fon,Jules Clement Nguedia Assob,Dickson Shey Nsagha,Tayong Dizzle Bita Kwenti,Tebit Emmanuel Kwenti
Infectious Diseases of Poverty. 2015; 4(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
42 Prevalence of Necator americanus infection and risk factors among school-age children in Mirab Abaya District, South Ethiopia
Habtamu Ketema,Abdissa Biruksew,Zeleke Mekonnen
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 2015; 5(5): 363
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
43 Prevalence and Pattern of Soil-Transmitted Helminthic Infection among Primary School Children in a Rural Community in Imo State, Nigeria
Kelechi Kenneth Odinaka,Emeka Charles Nwolisa,Francis Mbanefo,Alfreda Chinekwu Iheakaram,Seline Okolo
Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2015; 2015: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
44 Prevalence of malnutrition and its associated factors among adult people living with HIV/AIDS receiving anti-retroviral therapy at Butajira Hospital, southern Ethiopia
Dereje Gedle,Baye Gelaw,Dagnachew Muluye,Molla Mesele
BMC Nutrition. 2015; 1(1): 5
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
45 Prevalence and risk factors of soil-transmitted helminth infection in Nepal
R.P. Parajuli,T. Fujiwara,M. Umezaki,S. Konishi,E. Takane,M. Maharjan,K. Tachibana,H.W. Jiang,K. Pahari,C. Watanabe
Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2014; 108(4): 228
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
46 Prevalence of hookworm infection: a retrospective study in Kumasi
Williams Walana,Eric Nana Kofi Aidoo,Samuel Crowther Kofi Tay
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2014; 4: S158
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
47 Blood Drain: Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Anemia in Pregnant Women
Theresa W. Gyorkos,Nicolas L. Gilbert,Amadou Garba
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2014; 8(7): e2912
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
48 Helminth infections and micronutrients in school-age children: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Brechje de Gier,Maiza Campos Ponce,Margot van de Bor,Colleen M Doak,Katja Polman
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2014; 99(6): 1499
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
49 Association between Anaemia, Iron Deficiency Anaemia, Neglected Parasitic Infections and Socioeconomic Factors in Rural Children of West Malaysia
Romano Ngui,Yvonne Ai Lian Lim,Liam Chong Kin,Chow Sek Chuen,Shukri Jaffar,Nilanthi de Silva
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2012; 6(3): e1550
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
50 The nutritional impacts of soil-transmitted helminths infections among Orang Asli schoolchildren in rural Malaysia
Ahmed, A. and Al-Mekhlafi, H.M. and Al-Adhroey, A.H. and Ithoi, I. and Abdulsalam, A.M. and Surin, J.
Parasites and Vectors. 2012; 5(1)
51 Association between anaemia, iron deficiency anaemia, neglected parasitic infections and socioeconomic factors in rural children of West Malaysia
Ngui, R. and Lim, Y.A.L. and Kin, L.C. and Chuen, C.S. and Jaffar, S.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2012; 6(3)
52 The nutritional impacts of soil-transmitted helminths infections among Orang Asli schoolchildren in rural Malaysia
Abdulhamid Ahmed,Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi,Abdulelah H Al-Adhroey,Init Ithoi,Awatif M Abdulsalam,Johari Surin
Parasites & Vectors. 2012; 5(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

  In this article
Subjects and Methods
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded837    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 52    

Recommend this journal