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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 11  |  Page : 523-532

Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory role of paraoxonase 1: Implication in arteriosclerosis diseases


1 Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA
2 Department of Clinical Laboratory and Nutritional Sciences, University of Massachusetts Lowell, MA, USA

Correspondence Address:
Mahdi Garelnabi
Department of Clinical Laboratory and Nutritional Sciences, School of Health and Environment, University of Massachusetts Lowell, 3 Solomont Way, Lowell, MA 01854, Suite 4, Lowell, MA
USA
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Source of Support: This work has been supported by a startup fund from the University of Massachusetts Lowell for Dr. Mahdi Garelnabi., Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1947-2714.103310

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Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a hydrolytic enzyme with wide range of substrates, and capability to protect against lipid oxidation. Despite of the large number of compounds that can be hydrolyzed by paraoxonase, the biologically relevant substrates are still not clearly determined. There is a massive in vitro and in vivo data to demonstrate the beneficial effects of PON1 in several atherosclerosis-related processes. The enzyme is primarily expressed in liver; however, it is also localized in other tissues. PON1 attracted significant interest as a protein that is responsible for the most of antioxidant properties of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Several bioactive molecules such as dietary polyphenols, aspirin and its hydrolysis product salicylate, are known to stimulate PON1 transcription activation in mouse liver and HepG2 cell line. Studies on the activity, function, and genetic makeup have revealed a protective role of PON1. Some striking data were obtained in PON1 gene knockout and PON1 transgenic mouse models and in human studies. The goal of this review is to assess the current understanding of PON1 expression, enzymatic and antioxidant activity, and its atheroprotective effects. Results from in vivo and in vitro basic studies; and from human studies on the association of PON1 with coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischemic stroke will be discussed.


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